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Section 5: Information On ELISA And ELISA Sensitivity

ELISA is essentially a diagnostic tool that is often used in plant pathology and medicine. It is also used in various industries as a tool for quality control. It involves the detection of the specific substance (or analyte) being analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively in a liquid sample. This technique continues to use liquid reagents throughout the process of the evaluation. The reagents remain in its liquid form and stays inside a reaction chamber. They also function to contain the reactants.

ELISA is a heterogenous assay that separates some components of the analytical reaction mixture. Adsorbing particular components onto a solid, physically immobilized phase does this. In ELISA, a solid phase has special binding properties on which a liquid sample is placed. This is followed by the sequential adding of multiple liquid reagents, incubating and washing of the reagents. There will be some optical change of the liquid in the well. The presence of analyte will then be measured from this liquid.

This will generate a qualitative reading typically based on the discovery of the concentration of transmitted light through spectrophotometry. This involves quantifying the transmission of certain specific light wavelength through the liquid. The sensitivity of discovery depends on how the signals are amplified during analytic reactions. Enzyme reactions are well-known amplification processes. Additionally, enzymes produce the signal that is linked to the reagents in fixed proportions. This enables accurate quantification.

ELISA Sensitivity
ELISAs are among the most sensitive immunoassays available. They have a typical detection range between 0.01 ng and 0.1 ng or 0.1 and 1 fmole. ELISA sensitivity relies on the specific characteristics of the interaction between the antibody and the antigen. Additionally, a number of substrates, like the ones yielding fluorescent signal or enhanced chemiluminescent, can be utilized to enhance results. Indirect detection will generate higher levels of signal and as such, should have more sensitivity. However, it can also result in elevated background signal that reduces net specific signal levels.

ELISAs are carried out quickly and easily. They are designed to speedily handle a large amount of parallel samples. Therefore, they are a commonly used to analyze a number of different research and diagnostic targets.
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Introduction Section 1 Section 2
rightarrow An Introduction to ELISA
    - Brief introduction to basic procedures, different types of ELISA tests...
rightarrow Overview Of The Basic ELISA Procedure
    - ELISA procedures, features, benefits, improvements...
rightarrow Understanding The ELISA Assay Types
    - ELISA's advantages, Direct, Sandwich, Competitive ELISA...
Section 3 ↢ Section 4 - Section 5 -
rightarrow Defining ELISA Detection Options
    - The two ELISA detection options: Direct and Indirect...
rightarrow ELISA Results
    - Testing Data: Quantitative, Qualitative, Semi-quantitative...
rightarrow Information On ELISA And ELISA Sensitivity
    - ELISA: The most sensitive immunoassays available...
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