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Section 1: Overview Of The Basic ELISA Procedure

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ELISA is the acronym for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which is a popular lab technique used to calculate and assess the presence of an analyte in a sample. In the case of ELISA, the technique is used primarily to determine the concentration of antibodies or antigens in the sample being tested.

The basic ELISA procedure will, unlike other assays that determine concentration of antibodies in blood or any other sample, provide precise quantities of the antibody or antigen in question. ELISA is different because separation of specific interactions and non-specific interactions is achieved through serial binding to a polystyrene multi-well plate.

Another unique feature of the ELISA test is that it can be used to formulate color-coded results with the color of the end product depending on the amount and concentration of the antigens or antibodies in the sample that was tested. This trait makes this procedure a lot easier to understand as compared to other procedures that do not offer the simplicity of color-coded test results.

Typical ELISA output of a strip-wells plate
• Typical ELISA output of a strip-wells plate
Other benefits of the ELISA procedure include:
• The tests can be carried out quickly, which means the patient does not have to wait a long time to undergo the test and receive the results.
• The ELISA test is a simple one that can be performed in a normal environment without requiring detailed preparation or other procedures.
• The procedure is designed in such a manner that a large volume of samples can be tested and assessed simultaneously. This makes it a preferred diagnostic procedure when tests have to be conducted in large numbers.

ELISA was developed primarily as an improvement over radioimmunoassay. The basic procedure, which was first introduced in the early 70s, continues to remain in use even today. Of course, newer technologies and better equipment have facilitated the introduction of modified versions of the procedure. The modified versions include Direct, Indirect, Sandwich and Competition, or Inhibition procedures. These modified procedures offer the following improvements:
• ELISAs can specifically measure the presence of the target analyte in a single well plate.
• These procedures offer detailed results with highly-accurate readings of precise parameters.
• The tests provide direct cell-related or cell-centric output.
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↢ Introduction - Section 1 - Section 2 ↣
rightarrow An Introduction to ELISA
    - Brief introduction to basic procedures, different types of ELISA tests...
rightarrow Overview Of The Basic ELISA Procedure
    - ELISA procedures, features, benefits, improvements...
rightarrow Understanding The ELISA Assay Types
    - ELISA's advantages, Direct, Sandwich, Competitive ELISA...
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Section 3 Section 4 Section 5
rightarrow Defining ELISA Detection Options
    - The two ELISA detection options: Direct and Indirect...
rightarrow ELISA Results
    - Testing Data: Quantitative, Qualitative, Semi-quantitative...
rightarrow Information On ELISA And ELISA Sensitivity
    - ELISA: The most sensitive immunoassays available...
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