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Secondary Antibody
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Secondary Antibody Definition

The binding of antibodies to target antigens can be visualized by either colorimetric or fluorescent methods. The methods for visualization involve either direct or indirect binding. Primary antibodies can be directly conjugated to fluorophores, enzymes or other substances that will aid in the visualization, such as GFP, biotin or horseradish peroxidase. However, when primary antibodies are directly conjugated, this limits the number of applications that they will be suitable for, as well as the sensitivity. For this reason, most researchers prefer to use conjugated secondary antibodies that will bind to the primary antibody of interest.

More on Secondary Antibody >>>

How to choose Secondary Antibodies

Secondary antibodies are raised against the same host species that was used to generate the primary antibody. For example, if the primary antibody was raised in rabbit, then an anti-rabbit secondary antibody that was raised in a species other than rabbit should be used. Secondary antibodies that are designed for use in Western blots and ELISA are generally conjugated to enzymes, such horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase. Biotin-conjugated secondary antibodies are also commonly used. The biotin label is small and stable, so it rarely interferes with the function of the labeled antibody. Biotin binds very strongly to avidin, and the biotin-avidin interaction can be used to further amplify the signal.
Streptavidin is purified from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii, and although this protein does not bind quite as strongly to biotin, it is used in various detection systems because it is unglycosylated and less likely to aggregate. Streptavidin also exhibits lower non-specific binding than avidin. Each avidin or streptavidin will bind four biotins per molecule. When a biotinylated secondary antibody is used for detection, the signal can be significantly amplified by incubation with an avidin-biotin complex or a labeled streptavidin-biotin. Streptavidin can also be conjugated to detection enzymes, such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase, as well as fluorophores, such as GFP and R-Phycoerythrin.
While secondary antibodies can be valuable tools for amplifying signals in immunohistochemistry, additional steps are often required to prevent non-specific binding, which can make it difficult to visualize the exact location of the protein of interest. The causes of non-specific binding include interactions between the primary and/or secondary antibody and serum proteins, ionic interactions between antibodies and tissues, as well as interactions with endogenous molecules that may interfere with the detection system used.
Non-specific hydrophobic interactions can be at least partially prevented by incubating tissue sections with heat-inactivated normal serum or bovine serum albumin. However, it is important to choose a normal serum that will not interact with the primary or secondary antibodies. The best choice is generally a serum from the same host animal as the secondary antibody or a serum from a species that is unrelated to either host species. Ionic interactions can be reduced by increasing the ionic strength of the fixative and diluents. Endogenous enzyme interference can be reduced through the use of blocking reagents, such as hydrogen peroxide (for horseradish peroxidase) and levamisole (for alkaline phosphatase). When avidin-biotin based detection systems are used, interference from endogenous biotin can be reduced by first incubating the sample with avidin to block the biotin binding sites and then incubating the sample with biotin to block any additional biotin binding sites on the avidin molecule.
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Displaying 1 to 25 (of 25 products) order by Products Name. Result Pages:  1 

Alkaline phosphatase, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS668918)
• 
Alkaline phosphatase conjugated Donkey anti Goat IgG (H+L)
Gene Names: Calni_1618
Other Names: Antibody to Goat IgG (H+L); Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) Antibody; Goat IgG (H+L) Antibody; Alkaline phosphatase
Host/Reactivities: Host: Donkey
Purification: Afinity Chromatography
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: IgG
Applications: ELISA (EIA), Western Blot (WB)

Testing Data
(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.025 mL   $115
• 0.1 mL   $185

Alkaline phosphatase, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS668919)
• 
Alkaline phosphatase conjugated Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H+L)
Gene Names: Calni_1618
Other Names: Antibody to Rabbit IgG (H+L); Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Antibody; Rabbit IgG (H+L) Antibody; Alkaline phosphatase
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat
Purification: Afinity Chromatography
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: IgG
Applications: ELISA (EIA), Western Blot (WB)

Testing Data
(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.025 mL   $115
• 0.1 mL   $185

Alkaline phosphatase, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS668920)
• 
Alkaline phosphatase conjugated Goat anti Rat IgG (H+L)
Gene Names: Calni_1618
Other Names: Antibody to Rat IgG (H+L); Anti-Rat IgG (H+L) Antibody; Rat IgG (H+L) Antibody; Alkaline phosphatase
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Rat
Purification: Afinity Chromatography
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: IgG
Applications: ELISA (EIA), Western Blot (WB)

Testing Data
(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.025 mL   $115
• 0.1 mL   $185

anti-Bovine IgG+FITC, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440139)
• 
anti-Bovine IgG+FITC
Gene Names: IgG-FITC
Host/Reactivities: Host: Rabbit / Reactivity: Bovine
Applications: Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Bovine IgG+HRP, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440138)
• 
anti-Bovine IgG+HRP
Gene Names: IgG-HRP
Host/Reactivities: Host: Rabbit / Reactivity: Bovine
Applications: Western Blot (WB)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Chicken IgG+FITC, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440137)
• 
anti-Chicken IgG+FITC
Gene Names: IgG-FITC
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Chicken
Applications: Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

Anti-Chicken IgG, Agarose, , Secondary Antibody

(#MBS330164)
• 
Anti-Chicken IgG, Agarose,
Other Names: Anti-Chicken IgG; Agarose
Host/Reactivities: Reactivity: Chicken
Applications: Affinity Chromatography, Immunoprecipitation (IP)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 2 mL   $665

anti-Chicken IgY+HRP, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440125)
• 
anti-Chicken IgY+HRP
Gene Names: IgY-HRP
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Chicken
Applications: Western Blot (WB)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Goat IgG+FITC, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440132)
• 
anti-Goat IgG+FITC
Gene Names: IgG-FITC
Host/Reactivities: Host: Rabbit / Reactivity: Goat
Applications: Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Goat IgG+HRP, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440120)
• 
anti-Goat IgG+HRP
Gene Names: IgG-HRP
Host/Reactivities: Host: Rabbit / Reactivity: Goat
Applications: Western Blot (WB)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-human IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS355657)
• 
Mouse secondary antibody to human IgG (Fc)-Unconjugated
Other Names: Mouse anti-human IgG (Fc)-Unconjugated; Mouse anti-human IgG
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Human
Purification: This product was purified from antiserum by immunoaffinity chromatography (monoclonal).
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: IgG
Applications: Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunoprecipitation (IP), Immunofluorescence (IF), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $270

anti-human IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS355665)
• 
Mouse secondary antibody to human IgG (Fc)-HRP
Other Names: Mouse anti-human IgG (Fc)-HRP conjugated; Mouse anti-human IgG
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Human
Purification: This product was purified from antiserum by immunoaffinity chromatography (monoclonal).
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: IgG
Applications: Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $210

anti-human IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS355675)
• 
Mouse secondary antibody to human IgG (Fc)-Biotin
Other Names: Mouse anti-human IgG (Fc)-Biotin conjugated; Mouse anti-human IgG
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Human
Purification: This product was purified from antiserum by immunoaffinity chromatography (monoclonal).
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: IgG
Applications: Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunoprecipitation (IP), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $200

anti-Human IgG+FITC, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440133)
• 
anti-Human IgG+FITC
Gene Names: IgG-FITC
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Human
Applications: Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Human IgG+HRP, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440121)
• 
anti-Human IgG+HRP
Gene Names: IgG-HRP
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Human
Applications: Western Blot (WB)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Mouse IgG+FITC, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440134)
• 
anti-Mouse IgG+FITC
Gene Names: IgG-FITC
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Mouse
Applications: Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Mouse IgG+HRP, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440122)
• 
anti-Mouse IgG+HRP
Gene Names: IgG-HRP
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Mouse
Applications: Western Blot (WB)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Rabbit IgG+FITC, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440135)
• 
anti-Rabbit IgG+FITC
Gene Names: IgG-FITC
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Rabbit
Applications: Western Blotting and Immunocytochemistry

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Rabbit IgG+HRP, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440123)
• 
anti-Rabbit IgG+HRP
Gene Names: IgG-HRP
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Rabbit
Applications: Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), ELISA

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Rat IgG+FITC, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440136)
• 
anti-Rat IgG+FITC
Gene Names: IgG-FITC
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Rat
Applications: Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Rat IgG+HRP, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440124)
• 
anti-Rat IgG+HRP
Gene Names: IgG-HRP
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Rat
Applications: Western Blot (WB)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Sheep IgG+FITC, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440141)
• 
anti-Sheep IgG+FITC
Gene Names: IgG-FITC
Host/Reactivities: Host: Rabbit / Reactivity: Sheep
Applications: Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

anti-Sheep IgG+HRP, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS440140)
• 
anti-Sheep IgG+HRP
Gene Names: IgG-HRP
Host/Reactivities: Host: Rabbit / Reactivity: Sheep
Applications: Western Blot (WB)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.2 mg   $145

Avidin, HRP Labeled, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS135886)
• 
Avidin, HRP Labeled
Host/Reactivities: Host: Egg white
Applications: ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.01 mL   $115
• 0.05 mL   $200

Avidin-peroxidase, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS2539945)
• 
Avidin-peroxidase (Avidin-HRP)
Other Names: Avidin-peroxidase(Avidin-HRP)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.06 mL   $70
• 0.12 mL   $75
• 0.2 mL   $95
Displaying 1 to 25 (of 25 products) Result Pages:  1 
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