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Secondary Antibody
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Secondary Antibody Definition

The binding of antibodies to target antigens can be visualized by either colorimetric or fluorescent methods. The methods for visualization involve either direct or indirect binding. Primary antibodies can be directly conjugated to fluorophores, enzymes or other substances that will aid in the visualization, such as GFP, biotin or horseradish peroxidase. However, when primary antibodies are directly conjugated, this limits the number of applications that they will be suitable for, as well as the sensitivity. For this reason, most researchers prefer to use conjugated secondary antibodies that will bind to the primary antibody of interest.

More on Secondary Antibody >>>

How to choose Secondary Antibodies

Secondary antibodies are raised against the same host species that was used to generate the primary antibody. For example, if the primary antibody was raised in rabbit, then an anti-rabbit secondary antibody that was raised in a species other than rabbit should be used. Secondary antibodies that are designed for use in Western blots and ELISA are generally conjugated to enzymes, such horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase. Biotin-conjugated secondary antibodies are also commonly used. The biotin label is small and stable, so it rarely interferes with the function of the labeled antibody. Biotin binds very strongly to avidin, and the biotin-avidin interaction can be used to further amplify the signal.
Streptavidin is purified from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii, and although this protein does not bind quite as strongly to biotin, it is used in various detection systems because it is unglycosylated and less likely to aggregate. Streptavidin also exhibits lower non-specific binding than avidin. Each avidin or streptavidin will bind four biotins per molecule. When a biotinylated secondary antibody is used for detection, the signal can be significantly amplified by incubation with an avidin-biotin complex or a labeled streptavidin-biotin. Streptavidin can also be conjugated to detection enzymes, such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase, as well as fluorophores, such as GFP and R-Phycoerythrin.
While secondary antibodies can be valuable tools for amplifying signals in immunohistochemistry, additional steps are often required to prevent non-specific binding, which can make it difficult to visualize the exact location of the protein of interest. The causes of non-specific binding include interactions between the primary and/or secondary antibody and serum proteins, ionic interactions between antibodies and tissues, as well as interactions with endogenous molecules that may interfere with the detection system used.
Non-specific hydrophobic interactions can be at least partially prevented by incubating tissue sections with heat-inactivated normal serum or bovine serum albumin. However, it is important to choose a normal serum that will not interact with the primary or secondary antibodies. The best choice is generally a serum from the same host animal as the secondary antibody or a serum from a species that is unrelated to either host species. Ionic interactions can be reduced by increasing the ionic strength of the fixative and diluents. Endogenous enzyme interference can be reduced through the use of blocking reagents, such as hydrogen peroxide (for horseradish peroxidase) and levamisole (for alkaline phosphatase). When avidin-biotin based detection systems are used, interference from endogenous biotin can be reduced by first incubating the sample with avidin to block the biotin binding sites and then incubating the sample with biotin to block any additional biotin binding sites on the avidin molecule.
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Displaying 1 to 50 (of 68 products) order by Products Name. Result Pages:  1  2  [Next >>] 

Goat Anti-Human IgG gamma chain Biotin, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8240801)
• 
Goat Anti-Human IgG gamma chain Biotin
Gene Names: IgG gamma chain
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Human
Purification: The antibody was isolated from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography using antigens coupled to agarose beads.
Applications: ELISA (EIA), Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IH), Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $140
• 0.5 mL   $215

Goat Anti-Mouse IgG1 HRP, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8241260)
• 
Goat Anti-Mouse IgG1 HRP
Gene Names: IgG1
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Mouse
Purification: The antibody was isolated from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography using antigens coupled to agarose beads.
Applications: ELISA (EIA), Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IH), Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
Popular Item
• 0.1 mL   $195
• 0.5 mL   $370

Goat Anti-Mouse IgG3 Biotin, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8239046)
• 
Goat Anti-Mouse IgG3 Biotin
Gene Names: IgG3
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Mouse
Purification: The antibody was isolated from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography using antigens coupled to agarose beads.
Applications: ELISA (EIA), Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IH), Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $195
• 0.5 mL   $370

Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H&L) HRP, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8240168)
• 
Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H&L) HRP
Gene Names: IgG
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat / Reactivity: Rabbit
Purification: The antibody was isolated from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography using antigens coupled to agarose beads.
Applications: ELISA (EIA), Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IH), Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

(Secondary Antibody)
Popular Item
• 0.1 mL   $125
• 0.5 mL   $175

HBS, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8503247)
• 
Goat Anti-HBS PcAb (labeling)
Gene Names: HBS

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $200

IgA, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8502839)
• 
Goat anti human IgA
Gene Names: IgA
Other Names: partial

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $485

IgA, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8501974)
• 
Goat anti human IgA-HRP
Gene Names: IgA
Other Names: partial

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $620

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8501773)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Purified
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8502546)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human and rabbit immunoglobulins, Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8501012)
• 
Goat anti-Human IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against mouse immunoglobulins, HRPO
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8505883)
• 
Mouse Anti Human IgG-FITC
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $485

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8502571)
• 
goat Anti Rabbit IgG-Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $405

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8503086)
• 
Goat Anti Mouse IgG
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $290

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8503598)
• 
Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human and mouse immunoglobulins, HRPO
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8501552)
• 
Goat anti-Human IgG (H+L), HRPO
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8504128)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human and rabbit immunoglobulins, HRPO
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8505411)
• 
Mouse Anti Human IgG McAb
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $290

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500554)
• 
Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human immunoglobulins, HRPO
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500557)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human and rat immunoglobulins, Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8502349)
• 
Mouse Anti Human IgG-HRP
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $405

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8504147)
• 
Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), FITC
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 50 Tests   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500054)
• 
Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human immunoglobulins, Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8501341)
• 
Goat Anti Human IgG-HRP
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $405

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8504930)
• 
Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human and mouse immunoglobulins, Purified
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8503153)
• 
goat Anti Rabbit IgG
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $290

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8504689)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), HRPO
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8502131)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500087)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human and rat immunoglobulins, HRPO
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500349)
• 
Goat Anti Human IgG
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $290

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500608)
• 
Goat anti-Human IgG (H+L), Purified
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8502915)
• 
Mouse Anti Human IgG-Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $405

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8505987)
• 
Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), PE
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 50 Tests   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500101)
• 
Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), Purified
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $225
• 5 mg   $225
• 0.5 mg   $290
• 1 mg   $355

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500373)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human immunoglobulins, Purified
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8501653)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human and rabbit immunoglobulins, Purified
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8505246)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human immunoglobulins, HRPO
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8505248)
• 
Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H+L), Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500403)
• 
Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human and mouse immunoglobulins, Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8501683)
• 
Goat anti-Human IgG (H+L), Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500151)
• 
Goat Anti Human IgG-Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $405

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8504506)
• 
Goat anti-Human IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against mouse immunoglobulins, Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8503746)
• 
Goat Anti Mouse IgG-FITC
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $485

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500932)
• 
Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), HRPO
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8501959)
• 
Goat anti-Human IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against mouse immunoglobulins, Purified
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500939)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human immunoglobulins, Biotin
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mL   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8502220)
• 
goat Anti Rabbit IgG-FITC
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $485

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8503501)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Cross absorbed against human and rat immunoglobulins, Purified
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8501714)
• 
goat Anti Rabbit IgG-HRP
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $405

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8500698)
• 
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), FITC
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 50 Tests   $225

IgG, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS8502251)
• 
Goat Anti Mouse IgG-HRP
Gene Names: IgG

(Secondary Antibody)
• 1 mg   $405
Displaying 1 to 50 (of 68 products) Result Pages:  1  2  [Next >>] 
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