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Secondary Antibody
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Secondary Antibody Definition

The binding of antibodies to target antigens can be visualized by either colorimetric or fluorescent methods. The methods for visualization involve either direct or indirect binding. Primary antibodies can be directly conjugated to fluorophores, enzymes or other substances that will aid in the visualization, such as GFP, biotin or horseradish peroxidase. However, when primary antibodies are directly conjugated, this limits the number of applications that they will be suitable for, as well as the sensitivity. For this reason, most researchers prefer to use conjugated secondary antibodies that will bind to the primary antibody of interest.

More on Secondary Antibody >>>

How to choose Secondary Antibodies

Secondary antibodies are raised against the same host species that was used to generate the primary antibody. For example, if the primary antibody was raised in rabbit, then an anti-rabbit secondary antibody that was raised in a species other than rabbit should be used. Secondary antibodies that are designed for use in Western blots and ELISA are generally conjugated to enzymes, such horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase. Biotin-conjugated secondary antibodies are also commonly used. The biotin label is small and stable, so it rarely interferes with the function of the labeled antibody. Biotin binds very strongly to avidin, and the biotin-avidin interaction can be used to further amplify the signal.
Streptavidin is purified from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii, and although this protein does not bind quite as strongly to biotin, it is used in various detection systems because it is unglycosylated and less likely to aggregate. Streptavidin also exhibits lower non-specific binding than avidin. Each avidin or streptavidin will bind four biotins per molecule. When a biotinylated secondary antibody is used for detection, the signal can be significantly amplified by incubation with an avidin-biotin complex or a labeled streptavidin-biotin. Streptavidin can also be conjugated to detection enzymes, such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase, as well as fluorophores, such as GFP and R-Phycoerythrin.
While secondary antibodies can be valuable tools for amplifying signals in immunohistochemistry, additional steps are often required to prevent non-specific binding, which can make it difficult to visualize the exact location of the protein of interest. The causes of non-specific binding include interactions between the primary and/or secondary antibody and serum proteins, ionic interactions between antibodies and tissues, as well as interactions with endogenous molecules that may interfere with the detection system used.
Non-specific hydrophobic interactions can be at least partially prevented by incubating tissue sections with heat-inactivated normal serum or bovine serum albumin. However, it is important to choose a normal serum that will not interact with the primary or secondary antibodies. The best choice is generally a serum from the same host animal as the secondary antibody or a serum from a species that is unrelated to either host species. Ionic interactions can be reduced by increasing the ionic strength of the fixative and diluents. Endogenous enzyme interference can be reduced through the use of blocking reagents, such as hydrogen peroxide (for horseradish peroxidase) and levamisole (for alkaline phosphatase). When avidin-biotin based detection systems are used, interference from endogenous biotin can be reduced by first incubating the sample with avidin to block the biotin binding sites and then incubating the sample with biotin to block any additional biotin binding sites on the avidin molecule.
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Displaying 1 to 23 (of 23 products) order by Products Name. Result Pages:  1 

Biotin Conjugated Goat Anti-human IgM, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176706)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Goat Anti-human IgM secondary antibody
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.25 mL   $230
• 0.5 mL   $390

Biotin Conjugated Goat Anti-mouse IgG, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176679)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Goat Anti-mouse IgG secondary antibody
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mL   $120
• 1 mL   $150

Biotin Conjugated Goat Anti-mouse IgM, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176657)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Goat Anti-mouse IgM secondary antibody
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.25 mL   $230
• 0.5 mL   $390

Biotin Conjugated Goat Anti-rabbit IgG, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176645)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Goat Anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody
Host/Reactivities: Host: Goat
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mL   $120
• 1 mL   $150

Biotin Conjugated Mouse Anti-human IgG, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176705)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Mouse Anti-human IgG secondary antibody
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mL   $160
• 1 mL   $330

Biotin Conjugated Mouse Anti-rabbit IgG, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176664)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Mouse Anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mL   $160
• 1 mL   $330

Biotin Conjugated Protein A, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176715)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Protein A
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mL   $150
• 1 mL   $205

Biotin Conjugated Protein G, Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176618)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Protein G
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mL   $230
• 1 mL   $390

Biotin Conjugated Rabbit Anti-goat IgG, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176629)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Rabbit Anti-goat IgG secondary antibody
Host/Reactivities: Host: Rabbit
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mL   $120
• 1 mL   $150

Biotin Conjugated Rabbit Anti-human IgG, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176668)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Rabbit Anti-human IgG secondary antibody
Host/Reactivities: Host: Rabbit
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mL   $120
• 1 mL   $150

Biotin Conjugated Rabbit Anti-rat IgG, Polyclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS176680)
• 
Biotin Conjugated Rabbit Anti-rat IgG secondary antibody
Host/Reactivities: Host: Rabbit
Applications: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Paraffin, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Formalin, Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA)

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mL   $120
• 1 mL   $150

Bu-1, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673964)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1-UNLB
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1 - Purified; Unlabeled Antibody; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone AV20
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Acetone Fixed/Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mg   $305

Bu-1, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673965)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1-FITC
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1 - FITC; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone AV20
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Acetone Fixed/Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

Testing Data
(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mg   $410

Bu-1, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673966)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1-BIOT
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1 - Biotin; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone AV20
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Acetone Fixed/Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mg   $375

Bu-1, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673967)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1-PE
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1 - Phycoerythrin-Labeled; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone AV20
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Acetone Fixed/Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $285

Bu-1a, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673944)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a-UNLB
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a - Purified; Unlabeled Antibody; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone 21-1A4
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

Testing Data
(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mg   $305

Bu-1a, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673945)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a-FITC
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a - FITC; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone 21-1A4
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mg   $410

Bu-1a, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673946)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a-BIOT
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a - Biotin; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone 21-1A4
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mg   $375

Bu-1a, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673947)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a-PE
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a - Phycoerythrin-Labeled; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1a
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone 21-1A4
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $285

Bu-1b, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673948)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b-UNLB
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b - Purified; Unlabeled Antibody; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone 5-11G2
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

Testing Data
(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mg   $305

Bu-1b, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673949)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b-UNLB
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b - Purified; Unlabeled Antibody; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone 5-11G2
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mg   $410

Bu-1b, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673950)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b-BIOT
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b - Biotin; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone 5-11G2
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.5 mg   $375

Bu-1b, Monoclonal Secondary Antibody

(#MBS673951)
• 
Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b-PE
Other Names: Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b - Phycoerythrin-Labeled; Mouse Anti-Chicken Bu-1b
Host/Reactivities: Host: Mouse / Reactivity: Chicken
Isotype/Clone: Isotype: Mouse (BALB/c) IgG1 kappa / Clone 5-11G2
Applications: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections); Immunoprecipitation

(Secondary Antibody)
• 0.1 mg   $285
Displaying 1 to 23 (of 23 products) Result Pages:  1 
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