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Beta-arrestin

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Functions in regulating agonist-mediated G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by mediating both receptor desensitization and resensitization processes. During homologous desensitization, beta-arrestins bind to the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and sterically preclude its coupling to the cognate G-protein; the binding appears to require additional receptor determinants exposed only in the active receptor conformation. The beta-arrestins target many receptors for internalization by acting as endocytic adapters (CLASPs, clathrin-associated sorting proteins) and recruiting the GPRCs to the adapter protein 2 complex 2 (AP-2) in clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). However, the extent of beta-arrestin involvement appears to vary significantly depending on the receptor, agonist and cell type. Internalized arrestin-receptor complexes traffic to intracellular endosomes, where they remain uncoupled from G-proteins. Two different modes of arrestin-mediated internalization occur. Class A receptors, like ADRB2, OPRM1, ENDRA, D1AR and ADRA1B dissociate from beta-arrestin at or near the plasma membrane and undergo rapid recycling. Class B receptors, like AVPR2, AGTR1, NTSR1, TRHR and TACR1 internalize as a complex with arrestin and traffic with it to endosomal vesicles, presumably as desensitized receptors, for extended periods of time. Receptor resensitization then requires that receptor-bound arrestin is removed so that the receptor can be dephosphorylated and returned to the plasma membrane. Involved in internalization of P2RY4 and UTP-stimulated internalization of P2RY2. Involved in phosphorylation-dependent internalization of OPRD1 ands subsequent recycling. Involved in the degradation of cAMP by recruiting cAMP phosphodiesterases to ligand-activated receptors. Beta-arrestins function as multivalent adapter proteins that can switch the GPCR from a G-protein signaling mode that transmits short-lived signals from the plasma membrane via small molecule second messengers and ion channels to a beta-arrestin signaling mode that transmits a distinct set of signals that are initiated as the receptor internalizes and transits the intracellular compartment. Acts as signaling scaffold for MAPK pathways such as MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2). ERK1/2 activated by the beta-arrestin scaffold is largely excluded from the nucleus and confined to cytoplasmic locations such as endocytic vesicles, also called beta-arrestin signalosomes. Recruits c-Src/SRC to ADRB2 resulting in ERK activation. GPCRs for which the beta-arrestin-mediated signaling relies on both ARRB1 and ARRB2 (codependent regulation) include ADRB2, F2RL1 and PTH1R. For some GPCRs the beta-arrestin-mediated signaling relies on either ARRB1 or ARRB2 and is inhibited by the other respective beta-arrestin form (reciprocal regulation). Inhibits ERK1/2 signaling in AGTR1- and AVPR2-mediated activation (reciprocal regulation). Is required for SP-stimulated endocytosis of NK1R and recruits c-Src/SRC to internalized NK1R resulting in ERK1/2 activation, which is required for the antiapoptotic effects of SP. Is involved in proteinase-activated F2RL1-mediated ERK activity. Acts as signaling scaffold for the AKT1 pathway. Is involved in alpha-thrombin-stimulated AKT1 signaling. Is involved in IGF1-stimulated AKT1 signaling leading to increased protection from apoptosis. Involved in activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and in actin bundle formation. Involved in F2RL1-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement and chemotaxis. Involved in AGTR1-mediated stress fiber formation by acting together with GNAQ to activate RHOA. Appears to function as signaling scaffold involved in regulation of MIP-1-beta-stimulated CCR5-dependent chemotaxis. Involved in attenuation of NF-kappa-B-dependent transcription in response to GPCR or cytokine stimulation by interacting with and stabilizing CHUK. May serve as nuclear messenger for GPCRs. Involved in OPRD1-stimulated transcriptional regulation by translocating to CDKN1B and FOS promoter regions and recruiting EP300 resulting in acetylation of histone H4. Involved in regulation of LEF1 transcriptional activity via interaction with DVL1 and/or DVL2 Also involved in regulation of receptors other than GPCRs. Involved in Toll-like receptor and IL-1 receptor signaling through the interaction with TRAF6 which prevents TRAF6 autoubiquitination and oligomerization required for activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN. Involved in IL8-mediated granule release in neutrophils. Binds phosphoinositides. Binds inositolhexakisphosphate (InsP6) (By similarity). Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced RAC1-LIMK1-PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1) and for the up-regulation of ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. Involved in the internalization of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3 (By similarity).

Below are the list of possible Beta-arrestin products. If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production, custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production. Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications.
 

Beta-arrestin-1

 Beta-arrestin-1 ELISA Kit
 Beta-arrestin-1 Recombinant
 Beta-arrestin-1 Antibody
Also known as Beta-arrestin-1 (Arrestin beta-1).
ARRB1: regulates G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) signaling by mediating both receptor desensitization and resensitization processes. Binds to GRK-phosphorylated receptor and sterically preclude its coupling to the cognate G- protein; the binding appears to require receptor determinants exposed only in the active receptor conformation. Targets
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many receptors for internalization by acting as endocytic adapters (CLASPs, clathrin-associated sorting proteins). Internalized arrestin-receptor complexes traffic to intracellular endosomes, where they remain uncoupled from G-proteins. Two different modes of arrestin-mediated internalization occur. Beta-arrestins function as multivalent adapter proteins that can switch the GPCR from a G-protein signaling mode that transmits short-lived signals from the plasma membrane via small molecule second messengers and ion channels to a beta-arrestin signaling mode that transmits a distinct set of signals that are initiated as the receptor internalizes and transits the intracellular compartment. Also involved in regulation of receptors other than GPCRs. Involved in Toll-like receptor and IL-1 receptor signaling through the interaction with TRAF6 which prevents TRAF6 autoubiquitination and oligomerization required for activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN. Binds phosphoinositides. Binds inositolhexakisphosphate (InsP6). Involved in IL8-mediated granule release in neutrophils. Interacts with phosphorylated ADRB2 and CHRM2. Interacts with SRC (via the SH3 domain and the protein kinase domain); the interaction is independent of the phosphorylation state of SRC C-terminus. Interacts with RAF1, CHUK, IKBKB and Nik. Interacts with DVL1 and DVL2; the interaction is enhanced by DVL phosphorylation. Interacts with IGF1R. Belongs to the arrestin family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing.

Protein type: Adaptor/scaffold

Cellular Component: basolateral plasma membrane; chromatin; cytoplasm; cytoplasmic vesicle; cytosol; dendritic spine; intracellular; nucleoplasm; nucleus; postsynaptic density; postsynaptic membrane; pseudopodium

Molecular Function: alpha-1A adrenergic receptor binding; alpha-1B adrenergic receptor binding; angiotensin receptor binding; caspase inhibitor activity; estrogen receptor binding; follicle stimulating hormone receptor binding; GTPase activator activity; insulin-like growth factor receptor binding; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase binding; phosphoprotein binding; protein binding; protein phosphorylated amino acid binding; transcription factor binding; ubiquitin protein ligase binding; V2 vasopressin receptor binding

Biological Process: activation of MAPK activity; endocytosis; follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway; G-protein coupled receptor internalization; G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; inhibition of NF-kappaB transcription factor; negative regulation of caspase activity; negative regulation of interleukin-6 production; negative regulation of interleukin-8 production; negative regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; negative regulation of protein ubiquitination; phototransduction; positive regulation of caspase activity; positive regulation of histone acetylation; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein binding; positive regulation of protein ubiquitination; positive regulation of receptor internalization; positive regulation of Rho protein signal transduction; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; protein ubiquitination; regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; stress fiber formation; transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
 Arrb1 ELISA Kit
 Arrb1 Recombinant
 Arrb1 Antibody
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Beta-arrestin-2

 Beta-arrestin-2 ELISA Kit
 Beta-arrestin-2 Recombinant
 Beta-arrestin-2 Antibody
Also known as Beta-arrestin-2 (Arrestin beta-2).
ARRB2: a member of the arrestin/beta-arrestin protein family. These proteins participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors. Acts as a cofactor in the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (BARK) mediated desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors. Expressed at high levels in the CNS and peripheral blood leukocytes.<
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Protein type: Adaptor/scaffold

Cellular Component: basolateral plasma membrane; cytoplasm; cytoplasmic vesicle; dendritic spine; endocytic vesicle; intracellular; nucleus; plasma membrane; postsynaptic density; postsynaptic membrane

Molecular Function: alpha-1A adrenergic receptor binding; alpha-1B adrenergic receptor binding; angiotensin receptor binding; clathrin binding; D1 dopamine receptor binding; enzyme binding; follicle stimulating hormone receptor binding; G-protein-coupled receptor binding; mitogen-activated protein kinase binding; platelet activating factor receptor binding; protein binding; protein complex binding; protein complex scaffold; protein domain specific binding; protein kinase B binding; receptor binding; type 1 angiotensin receptor binding; type 2A serotonin receptor binding; ubiquitin protein ligase binding

Biological Process: adult walking behavior; arrestin mediated desensitization of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; brain development; detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain; endocytosis; follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway; G-protein coupled receptor internalization; G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; inhibition of NF-kappaB transcription factor; negative regulation of caspase activity; negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production; negative regulation of interleukin-12 production; negative regulation of interleukin-6 production; negative regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity; negative regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; negative regulation of protein ubiquitination; negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production; positive regulation of calcium ion transport; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; positive regulation of protein ubiquitination; positive regulation of receptor internalization; positive regulation of synaptic transmission, dopaminergic; proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; protein ubiquitination; receptor internalization; regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process; regulation of cAMP catabolic process; regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
 Arrb2 ELISA Kit
 Arrb2 Recombinant
 Arrb2 Antibody
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