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Polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase

Hybrid PKS-NRPS synthetase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of the mycotoxins cytochalasins E and K .

Below are the list of possible Polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase products. If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production, custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production. Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications.

Polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase

 Polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase ELISA Kit
 Polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase Recombinant
 Polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase Antibody
Also known as Polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) (Cytochalasin biosynthesis protein A).
Hybrid PKS-NRPS synthetase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of the mycotoxins cytochalasins E and K (PubMed:21983160). The hybrid PKS-NRPS synthetase ccsA and the enoyl reductase ccsC are responsible for fusion of phenylalanine with an octaketide backbone a
nd subsequent release of the stable tetramic acid precursor (PubMed:21983160, PubMed:27551732). The polyketide synthase module (PKS) of the PKS-NRPS ccsA is responsible for the synthesis of the octaketide backbone (PubMed:21983160). The downstream nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) amidates the carboxyl end of the octaketide with a phenylalanine (PubMed:21983160). A reductase-like domain (R) at the C-terminus catalyzes the reductive release of the polyketide-amino acid intermediate (PubMed:21983160). Because ccsA lacks a designated enoylreductase (ER) domain, the required activity is provided the enoyl reductase ccsC (PubMed:21983160, PubMed:27551732). Upon formation of the 11-membered carbocycle-fused perhydroisoindolone intermediate, a number of oxidative steps are required to afford the final cytochalasin E and K, including two hydroxylations at C17 and C18, one alcohol oxidation at C17, one epoxidation at C6 and C7 and two Baeyer-Villiger oxidations (PubMed:21983160). The oxidative modification at C17, C18 and the C6-C7 epoxidation are likely to be catalyzed by the two cytochrome P450 oxygenases ccsD and ccsG (PubMed:21983160). CcsD may be responsible for the epoxidation of the C6-C7 double bond (PubMed:21983160). CcsG may be responsible for the successive oxidative modifications at C17 and C18 (PubMed:21983160). The double Baeyer-Villiger oxidations of ketocytochalasin to precytochalasin and cytochalasin Z(16) are among the final steps leading to cytochalasin E and K and are catalyzed by ccsB (PubMed:21983160, PubMed:24838010). The first oxygen insertion step follows that of the classic BVMO mechanism, generating the ester precytochalasin (PubMed:24838010). Release of precytochalasin into an aqueous environment can generate the shunt product iso-precytochalasin through spontaneous isomerization (PubMed:24838010). Alternatively, precytochalasin can undergo further oxidation by ccsB to yield the in-line carbonate-containing cytochalasin Z(16) (PubMed:24838010). Cytochalasin Z(16) is a precursor to cytochalasin E and cytochalasin K, whereas iso-precytochalasin is a precursor to cytochalasin Z(17) and rosellichalasin (PubMed:21983160, PubMed:24838010). The hydrolyase ccsE may catalyze hydrolysis of epoxide bond in cytochalasin E to afford cytochalasin K (PubMed:21983160). The function of ccsF has not been assigned but it may play a role in post-PKS-NRPS biosynthetic step, resistance or transport of cytochalasins and related PKS-NRPS products (PubMed:21983160).
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