AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development. Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at 'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3. Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr-117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation. Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear translocation (By similarity). Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity (By similarity). Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53 (By similarity).
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| RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase ELISA Kit|
RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase Recombinant
RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase Antibody
|Also known as RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT1 kinase) (Protein kinase B) (PKB) (Protein kinase B alpha) (PKB alpha) (Proto-oncogene c-Akt) (RAC-PK-alpha) (Thymoma viral proto-oncogene). |
Akt1: an oncogenic AGC kinase that plays a critical role in regulating cell survival and metabolism in many different signaling pathways. Dual phosphorylation is required for its activation. T308 is phosphorylated by PDK1 in the PI3 kinase pathway, and S473 is phosphorylated by mTOR in the mTORC2 pathway. The 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitination of AKT1 by TRAF6 is important for its translocation t
o the plasma membrane, phosphorylation, and activation. When Akt is fully phosphorylated it translocates into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its proteosomal degradation. Hyperactive or overexpressed in a number of cancers including breast, prostate, lung, pancreatic, liver, ovarian and colorectal. Over 160 protein substrates are known including many that regulate transcription, metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle, and growth.
Protein type: AGC group; AKT family; EC 22.214.171.124; Kinase, protein; Oncoprotein; Protein kinase, AGC; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor)
Cellular Component: cytoplasm; cytosol; intercellular junction; microtubule cytoskeleton; mitochondrion; nucleus; plasma membrane; protein complex; spindle; vesicle
Molecular Function: ATP binding; enzyme binding; GTPase activating protein binding; kinase activity; nitric-oxide synthase regulator activity; phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate binding; phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate binding; protein binding; protein kinase activity; protein kinase binding; protein kinase C binding; protein phosphatase 2A binding; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity
Biological Process: activated T cell apoptosis; aging; anagen; apoptotic mitochondrial changes; cell projection organization and biogenesis; cellular response to insulin stimulus; cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis; G1/S-specific positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity; germ cell development; glucose homeostasis; glucose metabolic process; glucose transport; glycogen biosynthetic process; glycogen metabolic process; inflammatory response; insulin receptor signaling pathway; insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway; lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway; maternal placenta development; myelin maintenance in the peripheral nervous system; negative regulation of apoptosis; negative regulation of autophagy; negative regulation of caspase activity; negative regulation of cell size; negative regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation; negative regulation of JNK cascade; negative regulation of protein kinase activity; negative regulation of proteolysis; osteoblast differentiation; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation; phosphorylation; positive regulation of apoptosis; positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration; positive regulation of cell growth; positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process; positive regulation of endodeoxyribonuclease activity; positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of fat cell differentiation; positive regulation of glucose import; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process; positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity; positive regulation of organ growth; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of transcription factor activity; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of vasoconstriction; protein amino acid phosphorylation; protein catabolic process; protein import into nucleus, translocation; protein kinase B signaling cascade; protein ubiquitination; regulation of cell migration; regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; regulation of myelination; regulation of protein localization; response to DNA damage stimulus; response to food; response to hormone stimulus; response to organic substance; signal transduction; spinal cord development; striated muscle cell differentiation; translation
| Akt1 ELISA Kit|
| Akt ELISA Kit|
| Rac ELISA Kit|