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Adiponectin

Important adipokine involved in the control of fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity, with direct anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. Stimulates AMPK phosphorylation and activation in the liver and the skeletal muscle, enhancing glucose utilization and fatty-acid combustion. Antagonizes TNF-alpha by negatively regulating its expression in various tissues such as liver and macrophages, and also by counteracting its effects. Inhibits endothelial NF-kappa-B signaling through a cAMP-dependent pathway. May play a role in cell growth, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling by binding and sequestering various growth factors with distinct binding affinities, depending on the type of complex, LMW, MMW or HMW.

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Adiponectin

Also known as Adiponectin (30 kDa adipocyte complement-related protein) (Adipocyte complement-related 30 kDa protein) (ACRP30) (Adipocyte, C1q and collagen domain-containing protein) (Adipocyte-specific protein AdipoQ).
adiponectin: Important adipokine involved in the control of fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity, with direct anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. Stimulates AMPK phosphorylation and activation in the liver and the skeletal muscle, enhancing glucose utilization and fatty-acid combustion. Antagonizes TNF-alpha by negatively regulating its expression in various tissues such as liver and macrophages, and also by counteracting its effects. Inhibits endothelial NF-kappa-B signaling through a cAMP-dependent pathway. May play a role in cell growth, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling by binding and sequestering various growth factors with distinct binding affinities, depending on the type of complex, LMW, MMW or HMW. Homomultimer. Forms trimers, hexamers and 12- to 18-mers. The trimers (low molecular weight complexes / LMW) are assembled via non-covalent interactions of the collagen-like domains in a triple helix and hydrophobic interactions within the globular C1q domain. Several trimers can associate to form disulfide-linked hexamers (middle molecular weight complexes / MMW) and larger complexes (higher molecular weight / HMW). The HMW-complex assembly may rely aditionally on lysine hydroxylation and glycosylation. LMW, MMW and HMW complexes bind to HBEGF, MMW and HMW complexes bind to PDGFB, and HMW complex binds to FGF2. Interacts with CTRP9A via the C1q domain (heterotrimeric complex). Synthesized exclusively by adipocytes and secreted into plasma.

Protein type: Endoplasmic reticulum; Hormone; Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide

Cellular Component: cell surface; endoplasmic reticulum; extracellular space; protein complex

Molecular Function: hormone activity; identical protein binding; protein binding; protein homodimerization activity; receptor binding; sialic acid binding

Biological Process: adiponectin-mediated signaling pathway; brown fat cell differentiation; cellular response to insulin stimulus; fatty acid beta-oxidation; fatty acid oxidation; glucose homeostasis; glucose metabolic process; membrane depolarization; membrane hyperpolarization; negative regulation of blood pressure; negative regulation of cell migration; negative regulation of fat cell differentiation; negative regulation of gluconeogenesis; negative regulation of granulocyte differentiation; negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion; negative regulation of hormone secretion; negative regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; negative regulation of inflammatory response; negative regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor biosynthetic process; negative regulation of macrophage differentiation; negative regulation of MAP kinase activity; negative regulation of phagocytosis; negative regulation of protein amino acid autophosphorylation; negative regulation of smooth muscle cell migration; negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; negative regulation of synaptic transmission; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production; positive regulation of blood pressure; positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process; positive regulation of fatty acid metabolic process; positive regulation of glucose import; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; positive regulation of interleukin-8 production; positive regulation of myeloid cell apoptosis; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein kinase activity; positive regulation of signal transduction; protein homooligomerization; response to glucose stimulus
Proteins Root Name Listing
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