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Aldehyde oxidase

Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal, and vanillin. Plays a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and drugs containing aromatic azaheterocyclic substituents. Participates in the bioactivation of prodrugs such as famciclovir, catalyzing the oxidation step from 6-deoxypenciclovir to penciclovir, which is a potent antiviral agent. Is probably involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis. May be a prominent source of superoxide generation via the one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen. Also may catalyze nitric oxide (NO) production via the reduction of nitrite to NO with NADH or aldehyde as electron donor. May play a role in adipogenesis.

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Aldehyde oxidase

Also known as Aldehyde oxidase (Aldehyde oxidase 1) (Azaheterocycle hydroxylase).
AOX1: Aldehyde oxidase produces hydrogen peroxide and, under certain conditions, can catalyze the formation of superoxide. Aldehyde oxidase is a candidate gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

Protein type: Amino Acid Metabolism - tryptophan; Amino Acid Metabolism - tyrosine; Amino Acid Metabolism - valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation; Cofactor and Vitamin Metabolism - nicotinate and nicotinamide; Cofactor and Vitamin Metabolism - vitamin B6; EC 1.2.3.1; Oxidoreductase; Xenobiotic Metabolism - drug metabolism - cytochrome P450

Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 2q33

Cellular Component: cytoplasm; cytosol

Molecular Function: aldehyde oxidase activity; FAD binding; xanthine dehydrogenase activity

Biological Process: inflammatory response; vitamin B6 metabolic process; xanthine catabolic process

Aldehyde oxidase 1

Also known as Aldehyde oxidase 1 (Azaheterocycle hydroxylase 1).
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal, and vanillin. Plays a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and drugs containing aromatic azaheterocyclic substituents. Is probably involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis. May be a prominent source of superoxide generation via the one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen. Also may catalyze nitric oxide (NO) production via the reduction of nitrite to NO with NADH or aldehyde as electron donor. May play a role in adipogenesis.

Aldehyde oxidase 2

Also known as Aldehyde oxidase 2 (Aldehyde oxidase homolog 3) (Azaheterocycle hydroxylase 2).
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as phthalazine, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde and retinal.

Aldehyde oxidase 3

Also known as Aldehyde oxidase 3 (Aldehyde oxidase homolog 1) (Azaheterocycle hydroxylase 3).
AOX3:

Protein type: EC 1.2.3.1; Oxidoreductase

Cellular Component: cytosol

Molecular Function: FAD binding; oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors; xanthine dehydrogenase activity

Biological Process: xanthine catabolic process

Aldehyde oxidase 4

Also known as Aldehyde oxidase 4 (Aldehyde oxidase homolog 2) (Azaheterocycle hydroxylase 4) (Retinal oxidase).
Aldehyde oxidase able to catalyze the oxidation of retinaldehyde into retinoate. Acts as a negative modulator of the epidermal trophism. May be able to oxidize a wide variety of aldehydes into their corresponding carboxylates and to hydroxylate azaheterocycles ().

Aldehyde oxidase GLOX

Also known as Aldehyde oxidase GLOX (Glyoxal oxidase) (GLOX).
Catalyzes the oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids by coupling the reaction to the reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Substrates include, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and glyoxal. May act as a source of extracellular hydrogen peroxide required for the oxidation reactions catalyzed by the lignin peroxidases (ligninases) and manganese peroxidases, both involved in lignin degradation.

Aldehyde oxidase GLOX1

Also known as Aldehyde oxidase GLOX1 (Glyoxal oxidase 1).
Catalyzes the oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylate by coupling the reaction to the reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Substrates include glyoxal and other aldehydes (). May be regulated by the transcription factor MYB80 during anther development and play a role in tapetum and pollen development (PubMed:21673079).

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