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Anthrone oxygenase

Anthrone oxygenase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of monodictyphenone, a prenyl xanthone derivative .

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Anthrone oxygenase

Also known as Anthrone oxygenase (Monodictyphenone synthesis protein H).
Anthrone oxygenase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of monodictyphenone, a prenyl xanthone derivative (PubMed:20139316, PubMed:21351751). The pathway begins with the synthesis of atrochrysone thioester by the polyketide synthase (PKS) mdpG (PubMed:20139316). The atrochrysone carboxyl ACP thioesterase mdpF then breaks the thioester bond and releases the atrochrysone carboxylic acid from gedC (PubMed:20139316). The atrochrysone carboxylic acid is then converted to atrochrysone which is further transformed into emodin anthrone (PubMed:20139316). The next step is performed by the anthrone oxygenase mdpH that catalyzes the oxidation of emodinanthrone to emodin (). Emodin is further mofified to yield monodictyphenone via several steps involving by mdpB, mdpC mdpJ, mdpK and mdpL (PubMed:20139316, PubMed:21351751).

Anthrone oxygenase encC

Also known as Anthrone oxygenase encC (Endocrocin synthesis protein C).
Anthrone oxygenase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of endocrocin, a simple anthraquinone interesting for many biotechnological applications (PubMed:22492455, PubMed:23592999). The pathway begins with the synthesis of atrochrysone thioester by the polyketide synthase (PKS) encA (PubMed:22492455). The atrochrysone carboxyl ACP thioesterase encB then breaks the thioester bond and releases the atrochrysone carboxylic acid from encA (PubMed:22492455). The atrochrysone carboxylic acid is then converted to endocrocin anthrone which is further oxidized into endocrocin by the anthrone oxygenase encC (PubMed:22492455). The exact function of encD has not been identified yet, but it negatively regulates endocrocin production, likely through the modification of endocrocin itself (PubMed:22492455).

Anthrone oxygenase gedH

Also known as Anthrone oxygenase gedH (Geodin synthesis protein H).
Anthrone oxygenase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of geodin, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of other natural products (PubMed:7665560, PubMed:19549600, PubMed:24009710). The pathway begins with the synthesis of atrochrysone thioester by the polyketide synthase (PKS) gedC (PubMed:12536215, PubMed:19549600). The atrochrysone carboxyl ACP thioesterase gedB then breaks the thioester bond and releases the atrochrysone carboxylic acid from gedC (PubMed:19549600). The atrochrysone carboxylic acid is then converted to atrochrysone which is further transformed into emodin anthrone (PubMed:24009710). The next step is performed by the emodin anthrone oxygenase gedH that catalyzes the oxidation of emodinanthrone to emodin (PubMed:1810248). Emodin O-methyltransferase encoded probably by gedA then catalyzes methylation of the 8-hydroxy group of emodin to form questin (PubMed:1444712). Ring cleavage of questin by questin oxidase gedK leads to desmethylsulochrin via several intermediates including questin epoxide (PubMed:3182756). Another methylation step probably catalyzed by methyltransferase gedG leads to the formation of sulochrin which is further converted to dihydrogeodin by the sulochrin halogenase gedL (PubMed:24009710). Finally, the dihydrogeodin oxidase gedJ catalyzes the stereospecific phenol oxidative coupling reaction converting dihydrogeodin to geodin (PubMed:7665560).

Anthrone oxygenase tpcL

Also known as Anthrone oxygenase tpcL (Trypacidin synthesis protein L).
Methyltransferase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of trypacidin, a mycotoxin with antiprotozoal activity and that plays a role in the infection process (PubMed:26278536, PubMed:26242966). The pathway begins with the synthesis of atrochrysone thioester by the polyketide synthase (PKS) tpcC (PubMed:26242966). The atrochrysone carboxyl ACP thioesterase tpcB then breaks the thioester bond and releases the atrochrysone carboxylic acid from tpcC (PubMed:26242966). The decarboxylase tpcK converts atrochrysone carboxylic acid to atrochrysone which is further reduced into emodin anthrone (PubMed:26242966). The next step is performed by the emodin anthrone oxygenase tpcL that catalyzes the oxidation of emodinanthrone to emodin (PubMed:26242966). Emodin O-methyltransferase encoded by tpcA catalyzes methylation of the 8-hydroxy group of emodin to form questin (PubMed:26242966). Ring cleavage of questin by questin oxidase tpcI leads to desmethylsulochrin via several intermediates including questin epoxide (). Another methylation step catalyzed by tpcM leads to the formation of sulochrin which is further converted to monomethylsulfochrin by tpcH. Finally, the tpcJ catalyzes the conversion of monomethylsulfochrin to trypacidin (PubMed:26242966). Trypacidin is toxic for human pulmonary and bronchial epithelial cells by initiating the intracellular formation of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thus triggering host necrotic cell death (PubMed:22319557). The trypacidin pathway is also able to produce endocrocin via a distinct route from the endocrocin Enc pathway (PubMed:26242966).
Proteins Root Name Listing
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