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Antitoxin

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the RNase activity of cognate toxin BC_0920. Probably does not have antitoxin activity on other toxins with the LXG domain.

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Antitoxin BC_0921

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the RNase activity of cognate toxin BC_0920. Probably does not have antitoxin activity on other toxins with the LXG domain.

Antitoxin CcdA

Also known as Antitoxin CcdA (LynA) (Protein H) (Protein LetA).
Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module which inhibits the post-segregational killing (PSK) of plasmid-free cells, also referred to as a plasmid addiction system. Labile antitoxin with a half-life of about 1 hour in the presence of CcdB. Binds to and blocks the activity of CcdB; will also remove bound CcdB protein from the CcdB-GyrA complex by forming a CcdA-CcdB complex, a process termed rejuvenation. The N-terminal 36 residues are not required for rejuventation. Functions as a transcriptional corepressor for the ccdAB operon, repression also requires CcdB.

Antitoxin ChpS

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. May be involved in the regulation of cell growth. It acts as a suppressor of the endoribonuclease (inhibitory function) of ChpB protein. Both ChpS and ChpB probably bind to the promoter region of the chpS-chpB operon to autoregulate their synthesis.

Antitoxin CptB

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. When coexpressed with cognate toxin CptA, the antitoxin neutralizes CptA's toxicity. Has been suggested to be a transcriptional regulator.

Antitoxin DinJ

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. A labile antitoxin that counteracts the effect of the YafQ toxin. YafQ and DinJ together bind their own promoter, and by analogy to other TA modules probably repress its expression.

Antitoxin Dmd

Antitoxin component of a potential toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Acts as an antitoxin against host toxins RnlA and LsoA, preventing them from degrading T4 bacteriophage-derived mRNA and thus permitting successful virus infection. Stabilizes middle (8-10 minutes) and late (18 to 28 minutes) T4 gene transcripts.

Antitoxin EndoAI

Also known as Antitoxin EndoAI (Antitoxin MazE-bs) (MazE-bs) (EndoA inhibitor).
Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Antitoxin that directly inhibits activity of EndoA in vitro. Upon expression in E.coli counteracts inhibitory effect of endoribonuclease EndoA. The EndoA-EndoAI complex does not seem to bind its own promoter (PubMed:24120662).

Antitoxin FitA

Also known as Antitoxin FitA (Trafficking protein A).
Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Plays a role in the speed with which bacteria traverse human epithelial cells; disruption of the locus increases the speed of trafficking about 2-4-fold. Binds to its own promoter, binding affinity of the FitAB complex is 20-30-fold higher than FitA alone. No nuclease activity was observed for the FitAB complex, perhaps because FitA (the antitoxin) prevents metal binding and thus catalysis by FitB.

Antitoxin HicB

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Functions as an mRNA interferase antitoxin; overexpression prevents HicA-mediated cessation of cell growth and inhibition of cell proliferation.

Antitoxin HicB 1

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Functions as an mRNA interferase antitoxin preventing effects of the HicA 1 toxin ().

Antitoxin HicB 2

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Functions as an mRNA interferase antitoxin preventing effects of the HicA 2 toxin ().

Antitoxin HigA1

Antitoxin component of an atypical, type II toxin-antitoxin chaperone (TAC) module. Probably neutralizes the toxic effects of cognate toxin HigB1, which also requires SecB-like chaperone MT2006 (AC Q7D7P7). Autorepresses its operon (higB1-higA1-MT2006).

Antitoxin HigA-1

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module that counteracts the effect of the HigB-1 toxin. Binds to its own promoter and regulates transcription of the higB-1/higA-1 operon.

Antitoxin HigA-2

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module that counteracts the effect of the HigB-2 toxin. Binds to its own promoter and regulates transcription of the higB-2/higA-2 operon.

Antitoxin HipB

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the toxic effect of cognate toxin HipA. Represses the hipBA operon promoter ().

Antitoxin LsoB

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. A labile antitoxin (half-life of 5.9 minutes) that inhibits the endonuclease activity of cognate toxin LsoA but not that of non-cognate toxin RnlA.

Antitoxin MazE

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin MazF. In M.smegmatis 3 TA modules (VapB-VapC, MazE-MazF and Phd-Doc) may be involved in monitoring the nutritional supply and physiological state of the cell, linking catabolic with anabolic reactions.

Antitoxin MazE2

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Labile antitoxin that binds to cognate MazF2 toxin and counteracts its endoribonuclease activity.

Antitoxin MazE3

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in E.coli and M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin MazF3. Overexpression of MazE3 alone decreased persister cells formation in M.smegmatis upon challenge with gentamicin or kanamycin.

Antitoxin MazE6

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Labile antitoxin that binds to cognate MazF6 toxin and counteracts its endoribonuclease activity.

Antitoxin MazE7

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in E.coli but not in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin MazF7.

Antitoxin MqsA

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Labile antitoxin that binds to the MqsR mRNA interferase toxin and neutralizes its endoribonuclease activity. Overexpression prevents MqsR-mediated cessation of cell growth and inhibition of cell proliferation. Initially reported to act as a cotranscription factor with MqsA (PubMed:19690171, PubMed:20105222). Following further experiments, the MqsR-MqsA complex does not bind DNA and all reported data are actually due to a small fraction of free MqsA alone binding DNA. Addition of MqsR to a preformed MqsA-promoter DNA complex causes dissociation of the MqsA-DNA complex, probably causing derepression of MqsA-repressed transcripts (PubMed:23172222). MqsA binds to 2 palindromes in the promoter region of the mqsRA operon activating its transcription. Binds to other promoters, inducing mcbR and spy and repressing cspD among others (PubMed:20105222). Binds to and represses the rpoS promoter, the master stress regulator, resulting in decreased cyclic-di-GMP, reduced stress resistance, increased cell motility and decreased biofilm formation; in these experiments 5 TA modules are missing (lacks MazEF, RelEB, ChpB, YoeB-YefM, YafQ-DinJ) (PubMed:21516113). An earlier study showed overexpression alone increases biofilm formation, perhaps by repressing cspD; in these experiments the 5 TA modules are present (PubMed:20105222). Represses the csgD promoter. In the presence of stress, when this protein is degraded, the promoters it represses are derepressed, leading to biofilm formation (Probable). This TA system mediates cell growth during bile acid deoxycholate stress by degrading mRNA for probable deoxycholate-binding protein YgiS; bile acid detergents such as deoxycholate are important for host defense against bacterial growth in the gall bladder and duodenum (PubMed:25534751).

Antitoxin MT0933

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin MT0934 ().

Antitoxin MT2731

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin MT2730 ().

Antitoxin ParD3

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin ParE3, but no other RelE or ParE toxin.

Antitoxin ParD4

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin ParE4, but no other RelE or ParE toxin.

Antitoxin PemI

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Labile antitoxin that binds to its cognate PemK endoribonuclease toxin and neutralizes its activity. Responsible for the stable maintenance of the plasmid during cell division. Both PemI and PemK proteins bind to the promoter region of the pem operon to autoregulate their synthesis.

Antitoxin PezA

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in E.coli neutralizes the toxic effect of cognate toxin PezT. Represses transcription of its own operon, PezT acts as a corepressor, considerably increasing repression.

Antitoxin Phd

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the bacteriostatic effect of cognate toxin Doc. In M.smegmatis 3 TA modules (VapB-VapC, MazE-MazF and Phd-Doc) may be involved in monitoring the nutritional supply and physiological state of the cell, linking catabolic with anabolic reactions.

Antitoxin PrlF

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Labile antitoxin that binds to the YhaV toxin and neutralizes its ribonuclease activity. Also acts as a transcription factor. The YhaV/PrlF complex binds the prlF-yhaV operon, probably negatively regulating its expression ().

Antitoxin RelB

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Counteracts the effect of RelE via direct protein-protein interaction, enabling the reversion of translation inhibition. Also acts as an autorepressor of relBE transcription. Increased transcription rate of relBE and activation of relE is consistent with a lower level of RelB in starved cells due to degradation of RelB by protease Lon ().

Antitoxin RelB1

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin RelE1, but no other RelE or ParE toxin.

Antitoxin RelB2

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin RelE2, but no other RelE or ParE toxin.

Antitoxin RelB3

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin RelE3, but no other RelE or ParE toxin.

Antitoxin RelB4

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin RelE4, but no other RelE or ParE toxin.

Antitoxin RelJ

Also known as Antitoxin RelJ (Antitoxin YefM).
Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. A probable antitoxin for the putative mRNA interferase RelK. Upon expression in E.coli but not in M.smegmatis this protein neutralizes E.coli YoeB.

Antitoxin RnlB

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. A labile antitoxin (half-life of 2.1 minutes) that inhibits the endonuclease activity of cognate toxin RnlA but not that of non-cognate toxin LsoA.

Antitoxin Rv0298

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin Rv0299.

Antitoxin Rv0909

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin Rv0910.

Antitoxin Rv2654c

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin Rv2653c.

Antitoxin VapB

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in E.coli neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC. The VapB/VapC complex probably regulates transcription of its own promoter.

Antitoxin VapB15

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC15 (PubMed:20011113). Partially inhibits the RNase activity of VapC15 (PubMed:25450593).

Antitoxin VapB2

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in E.coli or S.cerevisiae neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC2, partially inhibits the RNase activity of VapC2.

Antitoxin VapB22

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC22.

Antitoxin VapB25

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC25.

Antitoxin VapB26

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC26.

Antitoxin VapB27

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Cognate toxin is VapC27. Upon expression in E.coli partially counteracts the ribonuclease activity of non-cognate toxins MazF6 and MazF9.

Antitoxin VapB3

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC3.

Antitoxin VapB30

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC30.

Antitoxin VapB31

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC31.

Antitoxin VapB33

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC33.

Antitoxin VapB39

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC39.

Antitoxin VapB4

Also known as Antitoxin VapB4 (VapB-mt4).
Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Antitoxin that counteracts the effect of its cognate VapC4 toxin. Upon expression in situ, in M.smegmatis or E.coli neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC4.

Antitoxin VbhA

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module VbhT-VbhA. Acts by inhibiting the adenylyltransferase activity of VbhT; competes with ATP-binding and prevents productive ATP-binding to VbhT.

Antitoxin YafN

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Functions as an mRNA interferase antitoxin; overexpression prevents YafO-mediated cessation of cell growth and inhibition of cell proliferation.

Antitoxin YafW

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Labile antitoxin that counteracts the effect of the YkfI toxin. It does not seem to bind to the cognate toxin but instead induces toxin loss by an unknown mechanism.

Antitoxin YefM

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Antitoxin that counteracts the effect of the YoeB toxin. YefM binds to the promoter region of the yefM-yeoB operon to repress transcription, YeoB acts as a corepressor.

Antitoxin YobK

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the RNase activity of cognate toxin YobL, as well as its ability to inhibit growth upon expression in E.coli. Does not have antitoxin activity on other toxins with the LXG toxin domain.

Antitoxin YokJ

Also known as Antitoxin YokJ (SPBc2 prophage-derived uncharacterized YokJ).
Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the ability to inhibit growth of cognate toxin YokI upon expression in E.coli. Does not have antitoxin activity on other toxins with the LXG toxin domain.

Antitoxin YqcF

Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the RNase activity of cognate toxin YqcG, as well as its ability to inhibit growth upon expression in E.coli. Does not have antitoxin activity on other toxins with the LXG toxin domain.

Antitoxin YxxD

Also known as Antitoxin YxxD (ORF1).
Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Neutralizes the RNase activity of cognate toxin YxiD, as well as its ability to inhibit growth upon expression in E.coli. Does not have antitoxin activity on other toxins with the LXG toxin domain.

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