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AP-2 complex

Adaptins are components of the adapter complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. Alpha adaptin is a subunit of the plasma membrane adapter (By similarity).

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AP-2 complex subunit alpha

Also known as AP-2 complex subunit alpha (Alpha-adaptin).
Adaptins are components of the adapter complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. Alpha adaptin is a subunit of the plasma membrane adapter ().

AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1

Also known as AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 (100 kDa coated vesicle protein A) (Adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit alpha-1) (Adaptor-related protein complex 2 subunit alpha-1) (Alpha-adaptin A) (Alpha1-adaptin) (Clathrin assembly protein complex 2 alpha-A large chain) (Plasma membrane adaptor HA2/AP2 adaptin alpha A subunit).
AP2A1: Component of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport vesicles in different membrane traffic pathways. Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components and appear to be involved in cargo selection and vesicle formation. AP-2 is involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis in which cargo proteins are incorporated into vesicles surrounded by clathrin (clathrin- coated vesicles, CCVs) which are destined for fusion with the early endosome. The clathrin lattice serves as a mechanical scaffold but is itself unable to bind directly to membrane components. Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes which can bind directly to both the clathrin lattice and to the lipid and protein components of membranes are considered to be the major clathrin adaptors contributing the CCV formation. AP-2 also serves as a cargo receptor to selectively sort the membrane proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. AP-2 seems to play a role in the recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes from the presynaptic surface. AP-2 recognizes Y-X-X-[FILMV] (Y-X-X-Phi) and [ED]-X-X-X-L-[LI] endocytosis signal motifs within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. AP-2 may also play a role in maintaining normal post-endocytic trafficking through the ARF6-regulated, non-clathrin pathway. The AP-2 alpha subunit binds polyphosphoinositide-containing lipids, positioning AP-2 on the membrane. The AP-2 alpha subunit acts via its C- terminal appendage domain as a scaffolding platform for endocytic accessory proteins. The AP-2 alpha and AP-2 sigma subunits are thought to contribute to the recognition of the [ED]-X-X-X-L-[LI] motif. Belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunit family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing.

Protein type: Adaptor/scaffold; Vesicle

Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 19q13.33

Cellular Component: AP-2 adaptor complex; cytosol; membrane; plasma membrane

Molecular Function: protein binding; protein kinase binding

Biological Process: antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II; ephrin receptor signaling pathway; microtubule-based movement; negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway; regulation of defense response to virus by virus; Wnt receptor signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway

AP-2 complex subunit alpha-2

Also known as AP-2 complex subunit alpha-2 (100 kDa coated vesicle protein C) (Adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit alpha-2) (Adaptor-related protein complex 2 subunit alpha-2) (Alpha-adaptin C) (Alpha2-adaptin) (Clathrin assembly protein complex 2 alpha-C large chain) (Huntingtin yeast partner J) (Huntingtin-interacting protein 9) (HIP-9) (Huntingtin-interacting protein J) (Plasma membrane adaptor HA2/AP2 adaptin alpha C subunit).
AP2A2: Component of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport vesicles in different membrane traffic pathways. Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components and appear to be involved in cargo selection and vesicle formation. AP-2 is involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis in which cargo proteins are incorporated into vesicles surrounded by clathrin (clathrin- coated vesicles, CCVs) which are destined for fusion with the early endosome. The clathrin lattice serves as a mechanical scaffold but is itself unable to bind directly to membrane components. Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes which can bind directly to both the clathrin lattice and to the lipid and protein components of membranes are considered to be the major clathrin adaptors contributing the CCV formation. AP-2 also serves as a cargo receptor to selectively sort the membrane proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. AP-2 seems to play a role in the recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes from the presynaptic surface. AP-2 recognizes Y-X-X-[FILMV] (Y-X-X-Phi) and [ED]-X-X-X-L-[LI] endocytosis signal motifs within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. AP-2 may also play a role in maintaining normal post-endocytic trafficking through the ARF6-regulated, non-clathrin pathway. The AP-2 alpha subunit binds polyphosphoinositide-containing lipids, positioning AP-2 on the membrane. The AP-2 alpha subunit acts via its C- terminal appendage domain as a scaffolding platform for endocytic accessory proteins. The AP-2 alpha and AP-2 sigma subunits are thought to contribute to the recognition of the [ED]-X-X-X-L-[LI] motif. Belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunit family. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing.

Protein type: Adaptor/scaffold; Vesicle

Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 11p15.5

Cellular Component: AP-2 adaptor complex; cytoplasmic vesicle; cytosol; plasma membrane

Molecular Function: protein binding; protein kinase binding

Biological Process: antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II; ephrin receptor signaling pathway; microtubule-based movement; negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway; regulation of defense response to virus by virus; Wnt receptor signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway

AP-2 complex subunit beta

Also known as AP-2 complex subunit beta (AP105B) (Adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit beta) (Adaptor-related protein complex 2 subunit beta) (Beta-2-adaptin) (Beta-adaptin) (Clathrin assembly protein complex 2 beta large chain) (Plasma membrane adaptor HA2/AP2 adaptin beta subunit).
Component of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport vesicles in different membrane traffic pathways. Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components and appear to be involved in cargo selection and vesicle formation. AP-2 is involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis in which cargo proteins are incorporated into vesicles surrounded by clathrin (clathrin-coated vesicles, CCVs) which are destined for fusion with the early endosome. The clathrin lattice serves as a mechanical scaffold but is itself unable to bind directly to membrane components. Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes which can bind directly to both the clathrin lattice and to the lipid and protein components of membranes are considered to be the major clathrin adaptors contributing the CCV formation. AP-2 also serves as a cargo receptor to selectively sort the membrane proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. AP-2 seems to play a role in the recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes from the presynaptic surface. AP-2 recognizes Y-X-X-[FILMV] (Y-X-X-Phi) and [ED]-X-X-X-L-[LI] endocytosis signal motifs within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. AP-2 may also play a role in maintaining normal post-endocytic trafficking through the ARF6-regulated, non-clathrin pathway. The AP-2 beta subunit acts via its C-terminal appendage domain as a scaffolding platform for endocytic accessory proteins; at least some clathrin-associated sorting proteins (CLASPs) are recognized by their [DE]-X(1,2)-F-X-X-[FL]-X-X-X-R motif. The AP-2 beta subunit binds to clathrin heavy chain, promoting clathrin lattice assembly; clathrin displaces at least some CLASPs from AP2B1 which probably then can be positioned for further coat assembly ().

AP-2 complex subunit mu

Also known as AP-2 complex subunit mu (Adaptin medium chain APM4) (Clathrin assembly protein complex 2 mu medium chain) (Clathrin coat assembly protein AP50) (Clathrin coat-associated protein AP50) (Mu2-adaptin) (Plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50 kDa protein).
Component of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration.

AP-2 complex subunit mu-A

Also known as AP-2 complex subunit mu-A (AP-2 mu-A chain) (Clathrin assembly protein complex 2 mu-A medium chain) (Clathrin coat assembly protein AP50-A) (Clathrin coat-associated protein AP50-A) (Mu2-adaptin-A) (Plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50 kDa protein A).
Component of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. AP50 is a subunit of the plasma membrane adaptor. The complex binds polyphosphoinositide-containing lipids ().

AP-2 complex subunit mu-B

Also known as AP-2 complex subunit mu-B (AP-2 mu-B chain) (Clathrin assembly protein complex 2 mu-B medium chain) (Clathrin coat assembly protein AP50-B) (Clathrin coat-associated protein AP50-B) (Mu2-adaptin-B) (Plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50 kDa protein B).
Component of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. AP50 is a subunit of the plasma membrane adaptor. The complex binds polyphosphoinositide-containing lipids ().

AP-2 complex subunit sigma

Also known as AP-2 complex subunit sigma (Adaptin small chain) (Adaptor-related protein complex 2 subunit sigma) (Clathrin assembly protein 2 sigma small chain) (Sigma2-adaptin).
Component of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration ().

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