Functions as key mediator in apoptosis and inflammation. Promotes caspase-mediated apoptosis involving predominantly caspase-8 and also caspase-9 in a probable cell type-specific manner. Involved in activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, promotes caspase-8-dependent proteolytic maturation of BID independently of FADD in certain cell types and also mediates mitochondrial translocation of BAX and activates BAX-dependent apoptosis coupled to activation of caspase-9, -2 and -3. Involved in macrophage pyroptosis, a caspase-1-dependent inflammatory form of cell death and is the major constituent of the ASC pyroptosome which forms upon potassium depletion and rapidly recruits and activates caspase-1. In innate immune response believed to act as an integral adapter in the assembly of the inflammasome which activates caspase-1 leading to processing and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The function as activating adapter in different types of inflammasomes is mediated by the pyrin and CARD domains and their homotypic interactions. Required for recruitment of caspase-1 to inflammasomes containing certain pattern recognition receptors, such as NLRP2, NLRP3, AIM2 and probably IFI16. In the NLRP1 and NLRC4 inflammasomes seems not be required but facilitates the processing of procaspase-1. In cooperation with NOD2 involved in an inflammasome activated by bacterial muramyl dipeptide leading to caspase-1 activation. May be involved in DDX58-triggered proinflammatory responses and inflammasome activation. Isoform 2 may have a regulating effect on the function as inflammasome adapter. Isoform 3 seems to inhibit inflammasome-mediated maturation of interleukin-1 beta. In collaboration with AIM2 which detects cytosolic double-stranded DNA may also be involved in a caspase-1-independent cell death that involves caspase-8. In adaptive immunity may be involved in maturation of dendritic cells to stimulate T-cell immunity and in cytoskeletal rearrangements coupled to chemotaxis and antigen uptake may be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DOCK2; the latter function is proposed to involve the nuclear form. Also involved in transcriptional activation of cytokines and chemokines independent of the inflammasome; this function may involve AP-1, NF-kappa-B, MAPK and caspase-8 signaling pathways. For regulation of NF-kappa-B activating and inhibiting functions have been reported. Modulates NF-kappa-B induction at the level of the IKK complex by inhibiting kinase activity of CHUK and IKBK. Proposed to compete with RIPK2 for association with CASP1 thereby down-regulating CASP1-mediated RIPK2-dependent NF-kappa-B activation and activating interleukin-1 beta processing.
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PYCARD: Promotes caspase-mediated apoptosis. This proapoptotic activity is mediated predominantly through the activation of caspase-9. May be a component of the inflammasome, a protein complex which also includes NALP2, CARD8 and CASP1 and whose function would be the activation of proinflammatory caspases. Forms complexes with other DAPIN domain-containing proteins. Interacts with CIAS1/PYPAF1 and PYDC1. Widely expressed at low levels. Detected in peripheral blood leukocytes, lung, small intestine, spleen, thymus, colon and at lower levels in placenta, liver and kidney. Very low expression in skeletal muscle, heart and brain. Detected in the leukemia cell lines HL-60 and U-937, but not in Jurkat T- cell lymphoma and Daudi Burkitt's lymphoma. Detected in the melanoma cell line WM35, but not in WM793. Not detected in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and MOLT-4 lymphocytic leukemia cells. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing.
Protein type: Adaptor/scaffold; Tumor suppressor
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 16p11.2
Cellular Component: cytoplasm; cytosol; IkappaB kinase complex; mitochondrion; nucleolus; nucleus
Molecular Function: enzyme binding; identical protein binding; interleukin-6 receptor binding; myosin I binding; protease binding; protein binding; protein homodimerization activity; Pyrin domain binding; tropomyosin binding
Biological Process: activation of innate immune response; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; apoptosis; defense response to Gram-negative bacterium; defense response to virus; DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in induction of apoptosis; inhibition of NF-kappaB transcription factor; myeloid dendritic cell activation; myeloid dendritic cell activation during immune response; negative regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; negative regulation of interferon-beta production; positive regulation of actin filament polymerization; positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation; positive regulation of adaptive immune response; positive regulation of antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class II; positive regulation of apoptosis; positive regulation of caspase activity; positive regulation of interferon-gamma production; positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta secretion; positive regulation of interleukin-6 production; positive regulation of JNK cascade; positive regulation of phagocytosis; positive regulation of T cell activation; positive regulation of transcription factor activity; positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production; regulation of protein stability; tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway
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