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Austinol synthesis protein

Austinol synthesis protein F; Part of the gene cluster B that mediates the biosynthesis of austinol and dehydroaustinol, two fungal meroterpenoids .

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Austinol synthesis protein F

Austinol synthesis protein F; Part of the gene cluster B that mediates the biosynthesis of austinol and dehydroaustinol, two fungal meroterpenoids (PubMed:22329759). The first step of the pathway is the synthesis of 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid by the polyketide synthase ausA (PubMed:22329759). 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid is then prenylated by the polyprenyl transferase ausN (PubMed:22329759). Further epoxidation by the FAD-dependent monooxygenase ausM and cyclization by the probable terpene cyclase ausL lead to the formation of protoaustinoid A (PubMed:22329759). Protoaustinoid A is then oxidized to spiro-lactone preaustinoid A3 by the combined action of the FAD-binding monooxygenases ausB and ausC, and the dioxygenase ausE (PubMed:22329759, PubMed:23865690). Acid-catalyzed keto-rearrangement and ring contraction of the tetraketide portion of preaustinoid A3 by ausJ lead to the formation of preaustinoid A4 (PubMed:22329759). The aldo-keto reductase ausK, with the help of ausH, is involved in the next step by transforming preaustinoid A4 into isoaustinone which is in turn hydroxylated by the P450 monooxygenase ausI to form austinolide (PubMed:22329759). Finally, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase ausG modifies austinolide to austinol (PubMed:22329759). Austinol can be further modified to dehydroaustinol which forms a diffusible complex with diorcinol that initiates conidiation (PubMed:22234162, PubMed:22329759). The exact role of ausF within the pathway has not been identified yet, but since its deletion does not completely abolish production of austinol and dehydroaustinol, it might be involved in a late step of the biosynthesis pathway or, more likely, may have a regulatory function (PubMed:22329759).

Austinol synthesis protein H

Austinol synthesis protein H: Part of the gene cluster B that mediates the biosynthesis of austinol and dehydroaustinol, two fungal meroterpenoids (PubMed:22329759). The first step of the pathway is the synthesis of 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid by the polyketide synthase ausA (PubMed:22329759). 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid is then prenylated by the polyprenyl transferase ausN (PubMed:22329759). Further epoxidation by the FAD-dependent monooxygenase ausM and cyclization by the probable terpene cyclase ausL lead to the formation of protoaustinoid A (PubMed:22329759). Protoaustinoid A is then oxidized to spiro-lactone preaustinoid A3 by the combined action of the FAD-binding monooxygenases ausB and ausC, and the dioxygenase ausE (PubMed:22329759, PubMed:23865690). Acid-catalyzed keto-rearrangement and ring contraction of the tetraketide portion of preaustinoid A3 by ausJ lead to the formation of preaustinoid A4 (PubMed:22329759). The aldo-keto reductase ausK, with the help of ausH, is involved in the next step by transforming preaustinoid A4 into isoaustinone which is in turn hydroxylated by the P450 monooxygenase ausI to form austinolide (PubMed:22329759). Finally, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase ausG modifies austinolide to austinol (PubMed:22329759). Austinol can be further modified to dehydroaustinol which forms a diffusible complex with diorcinol that initiates conidiation (PubMed:22234162, PubMed:22329759). AusH may play a role in the altering of ausK's stereospecificity to produce isoaustinone instead of the shunt product (5'R)-isoaustinone (PubMed:22329759).

Austinol synthesis protein J

Part of the gene cluster B that mediates the biosynthesis of austinol and dehydroaustinol, two fungal meroterpenoids (PubMed:22329759). The first step of the pathway is the synthesis of 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid by the polyketide synthase ausA (PubMed:22329759). 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid is then prenylated by the polyprenyl transferase ausN (PubMed:22329759). Further epoxidation by the FAD-dependent monooxygenase ausM and cyclization by the probable terpene cyclase ausL lead to the formation of protoaustinoid A (PubMed:22329759). Protoaustinoid A is then oxidized to spiro-lactone preaustinoid A3 by the combined action of the FAD-binding monooxygenases ausB and ausC, and the dioxygenase ausE (PubMed:22329759, PubMed:23865690). Acid-catalyzed keto-rearrangement and ring contraction of the tetraketide portion of preaustinoid A3 by ausJ lead to the formation of preaustinoid A4 (PubMed:22329759). The aldo-keto reductase ausK, with the help of ausH, is involved in the next step by transforming preaustinoid A4 into isoaustinone which is in turn hydroxylated by the P450 monooxygenase ausI to form austinolide (PubMed:22329759). Finally, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase ausG modifies austinolide to austinol (PubMed:22329759). Austinol can be further modified to dehydroaustinol which forms a diffusible complex with diorcinol that initiates conidiation (PubMed:22234162, PubMed:22329759). AusJ produces also the shunt products preaustinoid A5 and austinoneol A11, using preaustinoid A3 as a substrate (PubMed:22329759).

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