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Autophagy-related protein

Autophagy factor required for autophagosome formation. Stabilizes ATG13, protecting it from proteasomal degradation.

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Autophagy-related protein 101

ATG101: an protein required for autophagosome formation. Interacts with ATG13. Associates with a complex composed of ATG13, ULK1 and RB1CC1. Under starvation conditions it localizes to phagophores, which are preautophagosomal structures. Stabilizes the expression of Atg13 in the cell. Belongs to the ATG101 family.

Protein type: Autophagy

Molecular Function: identical protein binding; protein complex binding

Biological Process: autophagic vacuole formation

Autophagy-related protein 11

Accessory protein involved in autophagy. Acts as scaffold protein of the ATG1-ATG13 complex for faithful delivery of autophagic vesicles to the vacuole. Involved in the stress-induced phosphorylation of ATG1A for turnover of ATG1-ATG13 complex and proper ATG1-ATG13 complex assembly or activity. Required for selective mitophagy. Required for senescence-induced breakdown of mitochondria-resident proteins and mitochondrial vesicles. Seems not essential for ATG8-mediated autophagy.

Autophagy-related protein 13

Activates the atg1 kinase in a nutritional condition dependent manner through the TOR pathway, leading to autophagy. Also involved in cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and more specifically in Cvt vesicle formation. Seems to play a role in the switching machinery regulating the conversion between the Cvt pathway and autophagy. Finally, atg13 is also required for glycogen storage during stationary phase ().

Autophagy-related protein 13 homolog

Autophagy factor required for autophagosome formation. Target of the TOR kinase signaling pathway that regulates autophagy through the control of the phosphorylation status of Atg13 and Atg1. The Atg1-Atg13 complex functions at multiple levels to mediate and adjust nutrient-dependent autophagic signaling. Involved in the autophagic degradation of dBruce which controls DNA fragmentation in nurse cells.

Autophagy-related protein 13a

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 13a (AtAPG13a).
Involved in autophagy in a nutritional condition dependent manner. The ATG1-ATG13 protein kinase complex regulates downstream events required for autophagosome enclosure and/or vacuolar delivery. Becomes a target of autophagy under nutrient starvation. Connects autophagy to plant nutritional status.

Autophagy-related protein 13b

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 13b (AtAPG13b).
Involved in autophagy in a nutritional condition dependent manner. The ATG1-ATG13 protein kinase complex regulates downstream events required for autophagosome enclosure and/or vacuolar delivery. Becomes a target of autophagy under nutrient starvation (). Connects autophagy to plant nutritional status (PubMed:21984698).

Autophagy-related protein 14

Required for cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and autophagy as a part of the autophagy-specific vps34 PI3-kinase complex I. This complex is essential to recruit the atg8-phosphatidylinositol conjugate and the atg12-atg5 conjugate to the preautophagosomal structure. Atg14 mediates the specific binding of the vps34 PI3-kinase complex I to the preautophagosomal structure (PAS) ().

Autophagy-related protein 16

Stabilizes the ATG5-ATG12 conjugate which is necessary for autophagy. The ATG5-ATG12/ATG16 complex is required for efficient promotion of ATG8-conjugation to phosphatidylethanolamine and ATG8 localization to the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS). Recruits also ATG3 to the PAS. Involved in endoplasmic reticulum-specific autophagic process and is essential for the survival of cells subjected to severe ER stress ().

Autophagy-related protein 16-1

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 16-1 (APG16-like 1).
ATG16L1: Plays an essential role in autophagy. Homooligomer. Interacts with ATG5. Part of either the minor and major complexes respectively composed of 4 sets of ATG12-ATG5 and ATG16L1 (400 kDa) or 8 sets of ATG12-ATG5 and ATG16L1 (800 kDa). Belongs to the WD repeat ATG16 family. 5 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing.

Protein type: Adaptor/scaffold; Autophagy; Membrane protein, peripheral

Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 2q37.1

Cellular Component: autophagic vacuole; axoneme; cytosol

Molecular Function: identical protein binding; protein binding; small conjugating protein ligase activity

Biological Process: autophagic vacuole formation; macroautophagy

Disease: Inflammatory Bowel Disease 10

Autophagy-related protein 16-2

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 16-2 (APG16-like 2).
ATG16L2: May play a role in autophagy. Belongs to the WD repeat ATG16 family. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing.

Protein type: Autophagy

Cellular Component: nucleoplasm

Biological Process: autophagic vacuole formation

Autophagy-related protein 17

Autophagy-specific protein that functions in response to autophagy-inducing signals as a scaffold to recruit other ATG proteins to organize pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) formation. Modulates the timing and magnitude of the autophagy response, such as the size of the sequestering vesicles. Plays particularly a role in pexophagy and nucleophagy ().

Autophagy-related protein 18

The PI(3,5)P2 regulatory complex regulates both the synthesis and turnover of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2). Necessary for proper vacuole morphology. Plays an important role in osmotically-induced vacuole fragmentation. Required for cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) vesicle formation, pexophagy and starvation-induced autophagy. Involved in correct atg9 trafficking to the pre-autophagosomal structure. Might also be involved in premeiotic DNA replication ().

Autophagy-related protein 18b

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 18b (AtATG18b).
The PI(3,5)P2 regulatory complex regulates both the synthesis and turnover of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2). Required for autophagy ().

Autophagy-related protein 18c

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 18c (AtATG18c).
The PI(3,5)P2 regulatory complex regulates both the synthesis and turnover of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2). Required for autophagy ().

Autophagy-related protein 18d

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 18d (AtATG18d).
The PI(3,5)P2 regulatory complex regulates both the synthesis and turnover of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2). Required for autophagy ().

Autophagy-related protein 18e

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 18e (AtATG18e).
The PI(3,5)P2 regulatory complex regulates both the synthesis and turnover of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2). Required for autophagy ().

Autophagy-related protein 18f

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 18f (AtATG18f).
The PI(3,5)P2 regulatory complex regulates both the synthesis and turnover of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2). Required for autophagy ().

Autophagy-related protein 18h

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 18h (AtATG18h).
The PI(3,5)P2 regulatory complex regulates both the synthesis and turnover of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2). Required for autophagy ().

Autophagy-related protein 19

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 19 (Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting protein 19).
Cargo-receptor protein involved in the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and in autophagy. Recognizes cargo proteins, such as APE4, LAP3, LAP4 and AMS1 and delivers them to the pre-autophagosomal structure for eventual engulfment by the autophagosome and targeting to the vacuole. Involved in the organization of the preautophagosomal structure (PAS). ATG19 association with cargo protein is required to localize ATG11 to the PAS. Also involved in endoplasmic reticulum-specific autophagic process, in selective removal of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates, and is essential for the survival of cells subjected to severe ER stress. Plays also a role in regulation of filamentous growth.

Autophagy-related protein 2 homolog A

ATG2A: Belongs to the ATG2 family. 4 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing.

Protein type: Autophagy

Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 11q13.1

Cellular Component: extrinsic to membrane

Molecular Function: protein binding

Biological Process: autophagic vacuole formation; mitochondrion degradation

Autophagy-related protein 2 homolog B

ATG2B: Required for both autophagosome formation and regulation of lipid droplet morphology and dispersion. Belongs to the ATG2 family.

Protein type: Autophagy

Cellular Component: extrinsic to membrane

Biological Process: autophagic vacuole formation; mitochondrion degradation

Autophagy-related protein 20

Required for cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt), pexophagy and mitophagy. Also involved in endoplasmic reticulum-specific autophagic process and is essential for the survival of cells subjected to severe ER stress. Functions in protein retrieval from the endocytic pathway ().

Autophagy-related protein 21

Required for cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) vesicles formation and mitophagy. Involved in binding of phosphatidylethanolamine to ATG8 and in recruitment of ATG8 and ATG5 to the pre-autophagosomal structure. Protects ATG8 from ARG4-mediated cleavage ().

Autophagy-related protein 22

Vacuolar effluxer which mediate the efflux of amino acids resulting from autophagic degradation. The release of autophagic amino acids allows the maintenance of protein synthesis and viability during nitrogen starvation ().

Autophagy-related protein 22-1

Vacuolar effluxer which mediate the efflux of amino acids resulting from autophagic degradation. The release of autophagic amino acids allows the maintenance of protein synthesis and viability during nitrogen starvation ().

Autophagy-related protein 22-2

Vacuolar effluxer which mediate the efflux of amino acids resulting from autophagic degradation. The release of autophagic amino acids allows the maintenance of protein synthesis and viability during nitrogen starvation ().

Autophagy-related protein 23

Required for cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) vesicle formation and efficient autophagy. Plays a role in ATG protein retrieval from the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) and is especially required for autophagy-dependent cycling of ATG9. Plays also a role in regulation of filamentous growth ().

Autophagy-related protein 25

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 25 (Peroxisome degradation deficient protein 4).
Specifically required for selective degradation of peroxisomes via macropexophagy.

Autophagy-related protein 27

Effector of VPS34 phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase signaling. Regulates the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) vesicle formation. Plays a role in ATG protein retrieval from the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) and is especially required for autophagy-dependent cycling of ATG9 ().

Autophagy-related protein 29

Plays a role in autophagy. Functions at the preautophagosomal structure (PAS) in order to form normal autophagosomes under starvation conditions. Plays also a role in mitophagy and regulation of filamentous growth ().

Autophagy-related protein 3

E2 conjugating enzyme required for the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt), and autophagy. Responsible for the E2-like covalent binding of phosphatidylethanolamine to the C-terminal Gly of atg8. The atg12-atg5 conjugate plays a role of an E3 and promotes the transfer of atg8 from atg3 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). This step is required for the membrane association of atg8. The formation of the atg8-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugates is essential for autophagy and for the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) ().

Autophagy-related protein 30

Acts as the peroxisome receptor for pexophagy. Required for both micropexophagy and macropexophagy, but not for the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) or autophagy pathways. Required for functional micropexophagic apparatus (MIPA) and relocation of ATG11 to the peroxisome-sequestering arms of the vacuole.

Autophagy-related protein 31

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 31 (CIK1 suppressor protein 1) (Protein CIS1).
Plays a role in starvation-induced autophagy. Involved in mitophagy. Functions with ATG17 and ATG29 at the preautophagosomal structure (PAS) in order to form normal autophagosomes under starvation conditions. May be involved in microtubule function, such as chromosome segregation and karyogamy.

Autophagy-related protein 32

Mitophagy-specific receptor that recruits the autophagic machinery to mitochondria and regulates selective degradation of mitochondria. Mitophagy contributes to regulate mitochondrial quantity and quality by eliminating the mitochondria to a basal level to fulfill cellular energy requirements and preventing excess ROS production. Recruits ATG11 to the surface of mitochondria. Promotes also autophagy-dependent peroxisome degradation ().

Autophagy-related protein 34

Cargo-receptor protein involved in the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and in autophagy. Recognizes cargo proteins, such as AMS1 and delivers them to the pre-autophagosomal structure for eventual engulfment by the autophagosome and targeting to the vacuole.

Autophagy-related protein 37

Acyl-CoA binding protein which acts as the peroxisome receptor for pexophagy. Required for both micropexophagy and macropexophagy, but not for the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) or autophagy pathways. Required for functional micropexophagic apparatus (MIPA) and relocation of ATG11 to the peroxisome-sequestering arms of the vacuole. Binds palmytoyl-CoA but not oleyl-CoA.

Autophagy-related protein 38

Autophagy-related protein required for cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and autophagy as a part of the autophagy-specific VPS34 PI3-kinase complex I. This complex is essential to recruit the ATG8-phosphatidylinositol conjugate and the ATG12-ATG5 conjugate to the pre-autophagosomal structure. ATG38 is required for the integrity of the active PI3-kinase complex I by maintaining an association between VPS15-VPS34 and ATG1P-VPS30 subcomplexes.

Autophagy-related protein 39

Acts as a receptor for reticulophagy and nucleophagy. Directs autophagic sequestration of double-membrane vesicles derived from the nuclear envelope and perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum (pnER) into autophagosomes. Is not required for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway, mitophagy, pexophagy, and non-selective autophagy.

Autophagy-related protein 40

Acts as a receptor for reticulophagy. Directs autophagic sequestration of folded tubules/sheets derived from the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) and the cytoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum (cytoER) into autophagosomes. Is not required for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway, mitophagy, pexophagy, and non-selective autophagy.

Autophagy-related protein 41

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 41 (Interacting with cytoskeleton protein 2).
Involved in both selective and non-selective autophagy (PubMed:26565778). Does not appear to play a role in determining the size of autophagosomes, but rather influences their formation rate (PubMed:26565778). With ATG9, plays a role in the delivery of donor membrane to expanding phagophore (PubMed:26565778).

Autophagy-related protein 5

Involved in cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and autophagic vesicle formation. Autophagy is essential for maintenance of amino acid levels and protein synthesis under nitrogen starvation. Required for selective autophagic degradation of the nucleus (nucleophagy). Also required for mitophagy, which eliminates defective or superfluous mitochondria in order to fulfill cellular energy requirements and prevent excess ROS production. Conjugation with atg12, through a ubiquitin-like conjugating system involving apg-5/atg7 as an E1-like activating enzyme and atg10 as an E2-like conjugating enzyme, is essential for its function. The atg12-apg-4/atg5 conjugate acts as an E3-like enzyme which is required for lipidation of apg-6/atg8 and apg-6/atg8 association to the vesicle membranes ().

Autophagy-related protein 6

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 6 (Beclin-1-like protein).
Required for cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and autophagy. Also involved in endosome-to-Golgi retrograde transport ().

Autophagy-related protein 8

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 8 (Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier atg8).
Ubiquitin-like modifier involved in autophagosomes formation. With atg4, mediates the delivery of the autophagosomes to the vacuole via the microtubule cytoskeleton. Required for selective autophagic degradation of the nucleus (nucleophagy) as well as for mitophagy which contributes to regulate mitochondrial quantity and quality by eliminating the mitochondria to a basal level to fulfill cellular energy requirements and preventing excess ROS production. Participates also in membrane fusion events that take place in the early secretory pathway. Also involved in endoplasmic reticulum-specific autophagic process and is essential for the survival of cells subjected to severe ER stress. The atg8-PE conjugate mediates tethering between adjacent membranes and stimulates membrane hemifusion, leading to expansion of the autophagosomal membrane during autophagy.

Autophagy-related protein 8A

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 8A (Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier ATG8A).
Ubiquitin-like modifier involved in autophagosomes formation. May mediate the delivery of the autophagosomes to the vacuole via the microtubule cytoskeleton.

Autophagy-related protein 8B

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 8B (Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier ATG8B).
Ubiquitin-like modifier involved in autophagosomes formation. May mediate the delivery of the autophagosomes to the vacuole via the microtubule cytoskeleton.

Autophagy-related protein 8C

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 8C (Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier ATG8C).
Ubiquitin-like modifier involved in autophagosomes formation. May mediate the delivery of the autophagosomes to the vacuole via the microtubule cytoskeleton.

Autophagy-related protein 8D

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 8D (Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier ATG8D).
Ubiquitin-like modifier involved in autophagosomes formation. May mediate the delivery of the autophagosomes to the vacuole via the microtubule cytoskeleton.

Autophagy-related protein 8f

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 8f (Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier ATG8f) (AtAPG8f) (Protein autophagy 8f).
Ubiquitin-like modifier involved in autophagosomes formation. May mediate the delivery of the autophagosomes to the vacuole via the microtubule cytoskeleton.

Autophagy-related protein 8g

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 8g (Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier ATG8g) (AtAPG8g) (Protein autophagy 8g).
Ubiquitin-like modifier involved in autophagosomes formation. May mediate the delivery of the autophagosomes to the vacuole via the microtubule cytoskeleton.

Autophagy-related protein 8h

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 8h (Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier ATG8h) (AtAPG8h) (Protein autophagy 8h).
Ubiquitin-like modifier involved in autophagosomes formation. May mediate the delivery of the autophagosomes to the vacuole via the microtubule cytoskeleton.

Autophagy-related protein 8i

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 8i (Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier ATG8i) (AtAPG8i) (Protein autophagy 8i).
Encodes APG8, a component of autophagy conjugation pathway. Delivered to the lumens of vacuole under nitrogen-starvation condition.

Autophagy-related protein 9

Involved in autophagy and cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) vesicle formation. Plays a key role in the organization of the preautophagosomal structure/phagophore assembly site (PAS), the nucleating site for formation of the sequestering vesicle. Required for mitophagy. Cycles between the PAS and the cytoplasmic vesicle pool and may participate in supplying membrane for the growing autophagosome. Also involved in endoplasmic reticulum-specific autophagic process and is essential for the survival of cells subjected to severe ER stress. Different machineries are required for anterograde trafficking to the PAS during either the Cvt pathway or bulk autophagy and for retrograde trafficking.

Autophagy-related protein 9A

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 9A (APG9-like 1).
Involved in autophagy and cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) vesicle formation. Plays a key role in the organization of the preautophagosomal structure/phagophore assembly site (PAS), the nucleating site for formation of the sequestering vesicle. Cycles between a juxta-nuclear trans-Golgi network compartment and late endosomes. Nutrient starvation induces accumulation on autophagosomes. Starvation-dependent trafficking requires ULK1, ATG13 and SUPT20H ().

Autophagy-related protein 9B

Also known as Autophagy-related protein 9B (APG9-like 2) (Nitric oxide synthase 3-overlapping antisense gene protein).
ATG9B: Plays a role in autophagy. Belongs to the ATG9 family. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing.

Protein type: Autophagy; Membrane protein, integral; Membrane protein, multi-pass; Vesicle

Cellular Component: autophagic vacuole; cytoplasm

Biological Process: autophagic vacuole formation; mitochondrion degradation

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