Bifid nose is characterized by a condition where the nose is divided into two parts. This is usually a rare condition where the people are born with defective nose and vary in severity among the affected individuals. Among some cases, the mild condition can hardly be noticeable with just a groove at the nose tip while the severe condition can affect the underlying bones and cartilage resulting in the complete division of the nose. In some cases, the bifid nose may be the only birth defect presented while others may have several abnormalities that may affect the growth and function of different parts of the body. The bifid nose may be an inherited condition in some cases or may develop for the first time in with no record of its prevalence in the family.
Bifid nose occurs when the two sides of the nose fail to connect together during its development in the womb. There are various causes for the bifid nose. A certain malformation can create a problem with the nose development during pregnancy and may not be associated with the genetic change. This can also develop as the result of mutations in one or more genes which in some cases may be inherited from the parents. An inherited condition known as BNAR syndrome (bifid nose, renal agenesis and anorectal malformations syndrome) can create the bifid nose along with other abnormalities. This occurs as the result of a mutation in the gene FREM1. Ocular hypertelorism, a condition with wide-spaced eyes is also associated with the bifid nose. Another condition is known as frontonasal dysplasia which consists of abnormalities associated with the areas of the head and neck also includes the bifid nose.
The individuals affected with bifid nose have either a complete or a partial division of the nose. Along with this, they may have cleft lip and palate. It is estimated that around 8% of these cases also have other facial abnormality such as wide spaced eyes. In addition, they may have a genetic condition known as BNAR syndrome where the kidney, anus and rectum have defects.
A bifid nose may usually be detected during an examination conducted by a physician. In some cases, the nose abnormality may be mild that appear after adulthood while in other cases, the condition may be evident at birth. Usually, if the bifid nose occurs with other abnormalities or birth defects, a molecular genetic testing can detect the mutated gene responsible for the cause.
The treatment for bifid nose usually involves the reconstruction surgery of the defective nose. As the severity of the case varies among the affected individuals, hence each person may require an individualized plan for the surgery. The reconstruction surgery for the severe cases of the bifid nose can be challenging. The specialized craniofacial team can determine the appropriate treatment and follow-up plan suitable for the different cases.