Bone Resorption

Bone resorption is the process by which the bones are absorbed and broken down by the body. Osteoclast cells are responsible for the breakdown of bone minerals thus releasing calcium and phosphorous into the bloodstream. This occurs when the body has insufficient calcium from an individual’s diet.

Disorders develop either with an abnormal increase or in the reduction of bone resorption. Some of the disorders related to bone resorption are paget’s disease, osteoporosis, osteolysis, Hajdu-Cheney syndrome and osteopetrosis. Elder women post menopauses have increased bone resorption rates because of estrogen deficiency. Individuals who are younger continue their bone formation till the body has reached the peak bone mass. Usually after the age of 30, the rate of bone resorption is higher than the body can create new ones and as a result bone mass is lost. Factors that can help in the prevention of bone loss are ensuring regular exercise, avoiding alcohol, a diet high in calcium and vitamin D. Certain medications are responsible for bone loss and may cause osteoporosis. Bone loss is detected by bone mineral density test. The risk factors that includes are estrogen deficiency, long-term corticosteroid, low body mass index, disorders connected with osteoporosis, height, gender and race.

Disorders of bone resorption

Osteolysis refers to the condition of the bones becoming thin and weak. Some of the common risk factors involved in osteolysis are bone growth such as cysts, joint prosthetics which are materials used for joint replacements and infections that can create the bone loss. Symptoms develop as pain begins with the onset of osteolysis affecting the tissues around the bones.

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome is a rare disease where the individuals develop severe osteoporosis, fractures of the spinal bones and curvature of the spinal bone. This is an inherited connective tissue disease with defects of bones as they develop. The disorder affects several parts of the body along with the loss of bone tissues in hands and feet. As the tips of the bones continue to breakdown, hands and feet are short, becoming shorter over time. The bone development abnormality leads to short stature, as well as abnormalities of skull bones and bones of the face. This disorder of the bones can cause severe neurological issues including abnormal vision, fluid build-up in the brain and problems with a sense of balance.

Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited disorder present at birth with defects in the formation and breakdown of the bones. As a result, the bones are brittle with increased density and skeletal abnormalities in some cases. The dense bones tend to cause problems throughout the body as it affects other tissues. The two types of osteopetrosis are malignant infantile and adult where the former is evident in infants at birth while the latter is not diagnosed until adolescence or adulthood. Common symptoms include vision problem, bone fractures, recurrent infections, stunted growth and deformity.

Ainhum is a rare condition where one of the toes, usually the fifth toe, autoamputates as a result of tough tissues that tightens the body part. Symptoms usually start as slight pain due to the pressure of the nerves. The cause of this condition is not known but the race seems to be a contributing factor and individuals walking barefoot since childhood.