Bone Diseases occur due to abnormalities of one or more factors like the metabolic disorder, genetic disorder, hormonal imbalance, loss of bone mineral density, endocrine disorder and nutrition deficiencies. These factors contribute to the development of bone disease either in the early or late stages of one’s life depending on gender, race, age, medical condition, family history, and lifestyle. Few examples of these disorders are Osteoporosis, Paget’s Disease, Osteitis fibrosa, Rickets, Renal Osteodystrophy and Osteogenesis imperfecta.
A common form of the bone disease is Osteoporosis where the bone loses the mineral calcium thus weakening the structure and lowering the bone mineral density. There are two types of cells involved in bone formation and degradation called Osteoblast and Osteoclast. The osteoblast is responsible for depositing the excess calcium to the bones while Osteoclast ensures resorption of calcium from the bones when there is a deficiency. During later stages of life, Osteoclast activity is increased resulting in resorption of calcium from the bones. This makes the skeletal system weak and vulnerable to fractures. The risk of Osteoporosis increases when there is a loss of estrogen in women, usually after menopause and loss of testosterone in men. Osteoporosis can be prevented by getting enough exercise, avoiding alcohol, intake of food high in calcium and vitamin D.
Rickets is a bone condition which causes pain of the bone, problems in the growth of the skeleton resulting in deformities. The bone development becomes soft and weak in children and often seen as bowed legs. The adult version of this condition is known as Osteomalacia. The cause of both these conditions is Vitamin D deficiency when the body is not able to maintain the right amount of calcium and phosphorous levels. Rickets can be prevented by taking vitamin D and calcium regularly in the diet or as supplements.
Patients suffering from renal disease and those who undergo Dialysis often develop this complex bone disease called Renal Osteodystrophy. The kidney maintains the proper level of calcium and phosphorus in the blood and for those suffering from this condition, the kidney fails to maintain this balance. As a result of this imbalance, the bones break easily.
Paget’s disease is the deformation of the affected bones. This is a condition where the normal cycle of the skeletal system is interrupted resulting in more than normal bone growth making it weak and brittle.
Brittle Bone Disease
Osteogenesis imperfecta also known as Brittle Bone Disease is a genetic disorder where the weak bones are prone to break easily. Collagen is a protein that provides strength and support. The genes responsible for the control and production of collagen doesn’t work properly thus resulting in the body not being able to make strong bones. This disease cannot be cured but treatment can help with controlling the symptoms. This can cause many problems such as brittle teeth, hearing loss, bone fractures, and bone deformity. There are several types of Osteogenesis imperfecta and varies from person to person.
Other types of Bone Disorders include cancer and infections. Some of these conditions may develop later in life. Bones can develop malignancy which can result in the destruction of the bone. There are the primary tumors which actually develop from the bone while secondary cancer means its spread from other parts of the body. Examples of bone cancers are chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma.