Eyelid Diseases

Eyelid diseases are classified broadly based on causes such as inflammation, lesions, cancers and mechanical disorders.


  • Oil and bacteria are present in the edge of human eyelids or in the base of the eyelashes forming a coat. This can sometimes cause itching, stinging and burning sensation, crustiness, and redness. This medical condition is called Blepharitis and often leads to two different conditions called Stye and Chalazion.
  • Stye is often caused by bacterial infection of a hair follicle or an oil gland. Sometimes, sweat gland also causes the condition. Stye is usually treated by applying moisturizers and also antibiotics. The condition is characterized by a red and sensitive bump that appears on the edge of the eyelid.
  • Chalazion is characterized by a lump on the eyelid due to inflammation of an oil gland. In most cases, the condition heals over time but in some cases, surgery may be required to remove it. If a lump occurs in the same region, the patient needs to be screened for cancer.
  • Meibomianitis is similar to Stye and Chalazion but occurs when oil glands at the base of the eyelashes are obstructed. The condition is characterized by the thick and crusty eyelid.
  • Lacrimal duct obstruction is a medical condition in which lacrimal duct is blocked and as a result inflamed or infected. The area would swell and discharge pus and the usual symptoms are a variety of sensation that includes Irritation, itching, tearing, stinging and burning. Lacrimal duct helps in excess tears moving down to nostrils and often obstructions clear with time. Hot sponges help in the healing process and sometimes antibiotics are recommended for treating the infection.

Medical condition resulting from oily lesions that can occur anywhere on the skin including the eyelids.

  • Seborrheic keratosis is one such condition that occurs in the skin and prevalent among adults and doctors surgically remove them. Skin tone characterized as white, flaky and scaly is termed as
  • Actinic keratosis and it is considered as a precursor to carcinoma.
  • Hidrocystoma is a cyst that appears near the eyelid edge and is primarily caused by blockage of sweat glands. In cases where it causes enormous pain or interferences vision, surgery is recommended.
  • Molluscum contagiosum is a medical condition caused by viral infection and often seen in people with compromised immune system. Small and waxy nodules in the eyelashes can be removed through surgery or often disappears as the viral infection subsidizes. The infection when occurring near the eyelash can also result in inflammation further complicating the illness.
  • Nevus is a minute lesion otherwise called birthmark or a mole sometimes appear in the eyelid. People are often born with such marks and are usually not dangerous. If the pigmentation and appearance or the size of these marks change, it is important to be evaluated for melanoma.
  • Xanthelasma is a yellowish patch that is visible in the lower part of the eyelid and is often exhibited in patients with high cholesterol levels. Usually, it is removed via surgery or through laser treatments.

Mechanical Disorders
Medical condition in which one part of the organelle creates a blockade for the other, and results in pain and burning sensation.

  • Blepharospasm is a condition of involuntary contraction of the eyelid muscle. The condition is characterized by continuous blinking and fluttering. This condition is prevalent in patients who are sleep deprived or prone to continuous stress. There are two types of Blepharospasm: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and Hemifacial blepharospasm (HB)
  • Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) primarily stems from malfunctioning of basal ganglia; the disorder results in an inability to close eyes and also the eyes become extremely sensitive to light over time. The condition worsens over time often leading to blindness. Treatments include surgery and injections of botulinum toxin to relax the muscles.
  • Hemifacial blepharospasm (HB) affects one side of the face and is caused by irritation of nerves. Patients are recommended for brain MRI to understand to understand the level of illness before assessing treatment options.
  • Blepharoptosis is drooping of the upper eyelid and often results in partial blindness blocking pupil. This condition is caused by age and also at birth. Usually, this condition affects one eye. The condition is treated via surgery for permanent cure. Also, Ptosis can be one of the symptoms of Myasthenia gravis, a rare disease that causes muscle weakness in the face. the possible causes of
  • Ptosis include muscle diseases, brain tumor, nerve damage from diabetes. infection of the eyelid and trauma to the eyelid.
  • Coloboma is a medical condition that appears at birth affecting one or both the eyes. This occurs primarily due to improper development of the eye during gestation. Often the problem is addressed through surgery in children to fix the missing piece of eye tissue.
  • Dermatochalasis is a medical condition of excess fat or skin hanging over the eye obstructing vision. Surgical procedure is advocated to solve the problem.
  • Ectropion is a medical condition where the lower eyelid turns outward. The condition causes severe irritation and redness. Eye drops are usually used to moisten the eye and sometimes steroid ointments are also recommended. The permanent cure is offered by surgery.
  • Entropion is a condition where the eyelid turns inward and this results in eyelashes rubbing against the cornea and surrounding soft tissues. Patients experience redness and a discharge of mucus and also the condition is treated with eye drops and steroid cream until surgery.
  • Facial palsy is a medical condition in which there is an inability to close the upper eyelids due to loss of muscle tension in the lower eyelid. The treatment options are usually eye drops which help in preventing corneal abrasions or ulcerations.
  • Trichiasis results from the growth of eyelashes that rubs against the cornea, as a result causing pain, redness, and irritation. Often, removing or correcting eyelashes surgically can solve the problem. In some cases, the hair follicle is removed by electrolysis or cryotherapy.


  • Basal cell carcinoma is a commonly occurring cancer on the eyelid. Often eyelashes die around the tumor and the tumor spreads to the nearby areas. If left untreated, the growth can be large enough to obstruct vision. Usually, surgery is recommended at an early stage and radiation at a later stage. Given the complications, there are more chances of vision loss and also the cancer is likely to return.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by an aggressive growth of tumor cells and lesions on the eyelid. Treatment at an early state is usually necessary to cure the condition.
    Sebaceous carcinoma is only prevalent in adults and if left untreated can spread to other organs. Large tumor cells may require removal of the eye to completely wipe out cancerous tissues in the region.
  • Melanoma is a rare form of cancer and the treatment is a combination of surgery and radiation.

It is important to wash the eyelids regularly with warm water and use cleaning agents to protect from infection and inflammation.
Hair dandruff is associated with Blepharitis and the ability to control dandruff could significantly aid in reducing infection in the eyelids.
It is important to bring down the exposure of both the eyes and eyelids to ultraviolet rays to prevent eye diseases. This can be achieved by wearing sunglasses.