The stem cells are housed in the bone marrow which is found in the bones including hip and thighs. Stem cells have the potential to develop into many different cells required by the body along with the white blood cells, red blood cells or platelets.
Bone marrow disease is the abnormalities of the blood cells and how they develop. This occurs with the overproduction of one particular type of cells, creation of immature cells, infections of bone marrow due to microbes and nutrients deficiency. Some examples of the bone diseases and disorders include leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, aplastic anemia, iron deficiency anemia and plasma cell disorders.
Leukemia also referred to as blood cancer, is the cancer of blood-forming tissues such as bone marrow and lymphatic system. This usually affects the white blood cells which are essential to fight infections. It starts when one of the cell clone itself continuously and fails to function normally. These cloned cells tend to inhibit the production of other cells with the individual being vulnerable for infections. Symptoms of people with leukemia include fatigue, anemia, night sweats, weight loss and loss of appetite.
Myelodysplastic Syndrome is a disease of abnormal bone marrow cell production and or insufficient blood cells. In an individual suffering from myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets. As a result, there are fewer healthy blood cells making it easy for anemia and infection to develop.
Myeloproliferative disorders are a group of disease that can affect people of any age group and has no particular known cause. This is a result of excess in production of immature blood cells in the bone marrow. As a result of this overproduction, other blood cells are inhibited and there is dysfunction. Some of the symptoms include anorexia, fatigue, easy bleeding, night sweats and painful joints. Main types of myeloproliferative disorders are primary myelofibrosis, essential thrombocythemia and systemic mastocytosis.
Aplastic anemia is a disorder of the defect in the stem cells and the body stops producing new blood cells. This is a rare condition that happens due to exposure to radiation, chemicals, use of certain drugs, viral infection or rare genetic abnormalities and nutritional deficiencies. Symptoms include irregular heartbeat, fatigue, bleeding of gums and frequent infections.
Iron deficiency anemia is a common form of anemia when the body lacks sufficient red blood cells as a result of iron deficiency. There are several types of anemia. Some of the common causes of anemia are when the body is unable to absorb iron, nutritional deficiency, medical conditions, certain diseases like peptic ulcer and celiac disease. Pregnant and breastfeeding women often require iron supplements as they cannot meet the required demand in their diet. Symptoms include feeling weak, brittle nails, shortness of breath and concentration problems.
Plasma cell disorders are the condition that occurs when single plasma cell overproduces identical cells called clone. The overproduction of this identical cells results in the development of tumors in the bone marrow. The plasma cells act as antibodies and fight off infections, so with the overproduction of a single clone result in one type of antibody in the excess, meaning the decrease in other types of antibodies. Hence, people with plasma disorders are vulnerable to infections. Plasma cell disorders involve complications with damages of organs such as kidney, bones, impaired immunity, osteoporosis and anemia. Examples of plasma cell disorders include multiple myeloma, non-hereditary primary systemic amyloidosis, macroglobulinemia, and heavy chain diseases.